Review-SI 2016; 2016:e00132

Science Insights, 22 April 2016
Volume 2016
Doi: 10.15354/si.16.re132
Review (Narrative)
Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology, Treatment, and Pathogenesis
Javier Pérez de Orduña, MD*; José Brosa, MD, PhD*,∆
Author Affiliations
*: Department of Endocrine and Metabolism, University of Seville, Calle San Fernando, 4, 41004 Sevilla, Spain
∆: Correspondence to: Dr. José Brosa,  Email:


Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that are characterized by hyperglycemia due inadequate insulin action. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes are on the rise all over the world. Studies carried out by WHO projects such as the DIAMOND project reveal that even if type 1 diabetes prevalence is on the rise, type 2 diabetes is the major driver of the diabetes epidemic. There are various risk factors that may predispose an individual to diabetes mellitus. These factors include age, gender, genetics, environment and lifestyle. Diabetes mellitus is classified broadly as type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Other forms of diabetes mellitus such as idiopathic type one diabetes mellitus, fulminant type 1 diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and maturity onset diabetes of the young. Insulin treatment is the mainstay of therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral hypoglycemic agents such as metformin and sulfonylureas are majorly utilized in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is due to autoimmune reactions leading to the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas and is usually seen in children. Type two diabetes, on the other hand, is associated with poor lifestyle choices such physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. All these mechanisms lead to insufficient production of insulin or impaired insulin sensitivity resulting in hyperglycemia.

KeywordsDiabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Endocrine; Pathogenesis; Etiology