Published Mar 30, 2019

Haiping Xue  


The purpose of this study is to explore whether family capitals and shadow education affect students’ education acquisitions. The study constructs the social reproduction theory mode of family capitals influence on children’s education acquisitions. Using 2014 Chinese education tracking data, this study examined shadow education’s mediation effects on the process of family capitals affecting on education acquisitions for middle school students. Family capitals and shadow education jointly affect the education acquisitions of students, in which, shadow education plays an intermediary role between family capitals and education acquisitions for students. In sum, shadow education is increasingly becoming a supplement to school education and may become a new intermediary for family capitals influence on students' education acquisitions. The study adds to the limited literature in this particular field concerning the mediating effects of shadow education on family capitals and education acquisitions.



Family Capitals, Education Acquisitions, Shadow Education, Social Reproduction, Mediation Effect

Supporting Agencies

National Natural Science Foundation of China - “Family Capital, Shadow Education and Social Reproduction” Project (Approval Number: 71774112)

National Natural Science Foundation of China -- “Facing the Shadow Education System: Research on Supplementary Tutoring in Compulsory Education in China” Project (Approval Number: 71373165)

Bian, Y., Wu, X. & Li, Lulu. (2008). Social stratification and mobility: The overseas scholar’s advanced research on China. Renmin University of China Press. [Chinese]

Bourdieu, P. (1989). Cultural capital and social capital. Zhang Renjie translation. Selected Basic Articles of Education Sociology Abroad. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press. [Chinese]

Bray, M. (2012). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring? Edu Rev, 26(1), 132-133.

Bray, M., Zhan, S., Lykins, C., Wang, D., & Kwo, O. (2013). Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education. Econ Edu Rev, 38(1), 24-37. [Chinese]

Buchmann, C., Condron, D., & Roscigno J. (2009). Shadow education American style: Test preparation, the SAT and college enrollment. Soc Force, 89(2), 435-461.

Carneiro, P. & Heckman (2002). The evidence on credit constraints in post-secondary schooling. Econ J, 112(482), 705-734.

Chu, H. (2009). Background characteristics and personal factors of extracurricular tutoring families of primary and secondary school students in China. Edu Res Monthly,26 (12), 22-27. [Chinese]

Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. Am J Sociol, (supplement),94, 95-120.

Dang, H. A. (2007). The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam. Econ Edu Rev, 26(6), 683-698.

Dobrzansk, L.A., Golombek, K., & Hajduczek, E. (2000). Parental cultural capital and educational attainment in the Netherlands: A refinement of the cultural capital perspective. Sociol Edu, 73(2), 92-111.

Fang, C., & Feng, X. (2005). How distinction of social stratum affect the attainment of education: An analysis on split flows of education. Tsinghua J Edu, 26(5), 22-30. [Chinese]

Guill, K. & Bonsen, M. (2013). Leistungsvorteiledurch Nachhilfeunterricht in Mathematik am beginn der sekundarstufeI? Unterrichtswissenschaft, 38(2), 117-133.

Guo, C., & Min, W. (2006). The effect of economical and cultural capital on educational attainment in China. J Higher Edu, 27 (11), 24-31. [Chinese]

Hong, Y., & Zhao, Y. (2014). From capital to habitus: The class differentiation of family educational pattern in urban China. Sociol Stud, 29(4), 73-93. [Chinese]

Hou, J. Wen, Z., & Cheng, Z. (2004). Structural equation model and its application. Beijing: Education Science Press. [Chinese]

Hu, Y., Fan, W., & Ding, W. (2015). Does “shadow education” expand education in an unequal way? -empirical study based on PISA 2012 Shanghai data. Peking Univ Edu Rev, 13(3), 40-59. [Chinese]

James, R. (2000). Non-traditional students in Australian higher education: persistent inequities and the new ideology of student choice. Tertiary Edu Manag, 6(2), 105-118.

Jiang, G., & Yan, G. (2006). Correlation analysis on family capital and educational attainment disparity between rural and urban. Edu Sci, 22(8), 26-34. [Chinese]

Katsillis, J., & Rubinson, R. (1990). Cultural capital, student achievement and Educational reproduction: The case of Greece. Am Sociol Rev, 55(2), 270-279.

Li, C. (2003). Social political changes and inequality of educational opportunity. Soc Sci Chin, 24(3), 86-98. [Chinese]

Li, Yu. (2006). The mechanism of institutional change and education inequality -- education acquisition of urban children in China (1966-2003). Chin Soc Sci, 27(4), 97-109. [Chinese]

Liu, Z., & Gao, Y. (2011). Family capital, social stratification and the attainment of higher education -An empirical study based on Jiangsu province. J Higher Edu, 32(12) 18-27. [Chinese]

Melot, L. (2010). Lemarché du soutiens colaire [EB/OL]. Retrieved from http://www.xerfi.fr/ etudes/7SME04.pdf.

Robinson, R.V., & Maurice, A.G. (1985). Class reproduction among men and women in France: reproduction theory on its home ground. Am J Sociol, 91(2), 250-280.

Siu, L. (2008). Issues and procedures in adopting structural equation modeling technique. J Appl Quantitat Method, 3(1), 76-83.

Smyth, E. (2009). Buying your way into college? Private tuition and the transition to higher education in Ireland. Oxford Review of Education, 35(1), 1–22.

Stevenson, D.L. & Baker, D.P. (1992). Shadow education and allocation in formal schooling: Transition to university in Japan. Am J Sociol, 97(6), 1639-1657.

Sunderman, G.L. (2006). Do supplemental educational services increase for minority students? Phi Delta Kappan, 88(2), 117-122.

Tan, J. (2009). Private tutoring in Singapore: Bursting out of the shadows. J Youth Stud,12(1), 93-103.

Tansel, A., & Bircan-Bodur, F. (2008). Private supplementary tutoring in Turkey: Recent evidence on its various aspects. Soc Sci Electronic Pub, 9(1), 162-171.

Teacherman, J. (2000). Parental cultural capital and educational attainment in the Netherlands a refinement of the cultural. Am Sociol Rev, 73(2), 92-111.

Tsang, M., Ding X., & Shen, H. (2010). Urban-Rural disparities in tutoring of lower-secondary students. Edu Economy, 26(2), 7-11. [Chinese]

Wen, Z., Zhang L., Hou, J., & Liu H. (2004). Testing and application of the mediating effect TS. ActaPsychol Sinica, 49 (5), 614-620. [Chinese]

Woessmann, A. (2010). Educational production in East Asia: The impact of family background and schooling policies on student performance. German Econ Re, 6(3), 331-353.

Wong, R.S.K. (1998). Multidimensional influences of family environment in education: The case of socialist Czechoslovakia. Sociol Edu, (1),1-22.

Xue, H. (2015). From school education to shadow education: Education competition and social reproduction. Peking Univ Edu Rev,13 (3), 47-69. [Chinese]

Xue, H. (2016). Extracurricular tutoring, student achievements and social reproduction. Edu Economy, 32(2), 32-43. [Chinese]

Xue, H. & Ding, X. (2009). A study on additional instruction for students in cities and towns in China. Edu Res, 31 (1), 39-46. [Chinese]

Zhang, G. (2015). Can money ‘Buy’ schooling achievement? Evidence from 19 Chinese cities. Chin Econ Rev, 35: 83-104. [Chinese]

Zhang, Y. (2013). Does private tutoring improve students’ national college entrance exam performance? A case study from Jinan, China. Econ Edu Rev, 32(1), 1-28. [Chinese]

Zhou, J., & Zou, X. (2016). Comparing the private tutoring options between students in China and the United State -Evidences from 2012 PISA survey and investigation. Edu Economy, 32(2), 44-52. [Chinese].
How to Cite
Xue, H. (2019). Family Capitals and Education Acquisitions: Analysis on the Mediating Effect of Shadow Education. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 1(2), 87-107. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.19.ar1019