Published Mar 30, 2019

Wenyan Liang  

Ran Sun

Xiaomei Ye


This study explores the influence of parental involvement on children's academic development, and comprehensively defines the indicators of children's academic development from the perspective of core literacy. Based on urban and rural household registration status and regional migration, children in China are divided into four categories. Three main findings are as follows. First, parents' direct learning participation can hardly benefit children's academic development, regardless of what type of children. Specifically, this type of parental participation has a significant negative impact not only on academic test score of all children, but also on all academic development dimensions of   children who have rural to urban migrant experience. Second, parents' emotional participation behavior can effectively promote the academic development of children, regardless of migration type. Third, parents’ cultural participation has a positive effect on local urban children’s academic development, while it has a negative effect on the learning willpower and curiosity of urban–urban migrant children who move from one urban area to another in different provinces/districts. Under the background of mass internal migration and rapid urbanization, our findings provide implications for parents to better participate in their children's education in the context of rapid population movements and urbanization.



Parental Involvement, Academic Development, Core Literacy, Rural Hukou(Household Registration), Regional Migration

Supporting Agencies

Major research projects of the Ministry of Education – ”The research on the relationship between education and economic development and the contribution of them(15JZD040)”, special fund for Disciplinary Construction in 2017 by the Department of Education of Beijing Normal University.

Altschul, I. (2011) Parental involvement and the academic achievement of Mexican American youths: what kinds of involvement in youths’ education matter most. Social Work Research; 35(3): 159-170.

Altschul, I. (2012) Linking Socioeconomic status to the academic achievement of Mexican American youth through parent involvement in education. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research; 3(1): 13-30.

Brooks, N., Bruno, E., & Burns, T. (1997) Reinforcing students’ motivation through parent interaction. Elementary School Curriculum; 12(1): 109.

Currie, J. M. (1997) Choosing among alternative programs for poor children. The Future of Children; 7(2): 113-131.

Chu Hongqi. (2016) The international vision of core literacy and China’s stand - China’s national quality improvement and educational goal transformation in the 21st century. Educational Research; 37(11): 8-18.

Fan, W., & Williams, C. M. (2010) The effects of parental involvement on students’ academic self?efficacy, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Educational Psychology; 30(1): 53-74.

Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001) Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review; 13(1): 1-22.

Feng, S.Z, & Chen, Y.Y. (2016) The future of the city - Shanghai model of migrant children’s education. Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Press.

Gonzalez, A. R., Doan Holbein, M. F., & Quilter, S. (2002) High school students’ goal orientations and their relationship to perceived parenting styles. Contemporary Educational Psychology; 27(3): 450-470.

Grolnick, W. S., & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994) Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: a multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development; 65(1): 237-252.

He, A.X., & Li, R.M. (2000) The status, function and cultivation of emotion in learning to learn. Journal of the Chinese Society of Education; 4:38-40.

Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2008) The role of cognitive skills in economic development. Journal of Economic Literature; 46(3): 607-668.

Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006) The effects of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. Journal of Labor Economics; 24(3): 411-482.

Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009) Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology; 45(3): 740-763.

Huang, S., & Huo, L.Y. (2014) The main influencing factors of children’s learning quality: foreign research progress and its enlightenment. Comparative Education Review; 36(5):40-45.

Jr. McNeal, R. B. (1999) Parental involvement as social capital: differential effectiveness on science achievement, truancy, and dropping Out. Social Forces; 78(1): 117-144.

Li, J.L. (2017) Influence of parental involvement and intergenerational closure on cognitive ability of junior high school students -based on Coleman’s social capital theory. Research in Educational Development; 37(Z2):6-14.

Li, X.H., & Zheng, L. (2016) Does social capital work? Generation closure and children’s academic performance in rural families. Journal of Educational Studies; 12(3):45-53.

Li, X.H., & Zheng, L. (2017) The influence of family socioeconomic status on parental involvement and its mechanism -- based on CEPS data. China Economics of Education Review; 2(1):86-104.

Li, Z.L., & Qiu, Z.Q. (2016) How does family background affect children’s academic achievement? -- analysis on the influence of family socioeconomic status on compulsory education. Sociological Studies; 4:121-144.

Liu, G.R., & Teng, X.Q. (2016) The influence of parental involvement on the academic performance of migrant children: the mediating effect of autonomous motivation. Psychological Exploration; 36(5):433-438.

Nguon, S. (2012) Parental involvement and students’ achievement in Cambodia: focusing on parental resourcing of public schooling. International Journal of Educational Research; 53:213-224.

Patall, E. A., Cooper, H. & Robinson, J. C. (2008) Parent involvement in homework: a research synthesis. Review of Educational Research; 78(4): 1039-1101.

Plunkett, S. W., Henry, C. S., Houltberg, B. J., Sands, T., & Abarcamortensen, S. (2008) Academic support by significant others and educational resilience in Mexican-origin ninth grade students from intact families. Journal of Early Adolescence; 28(3): 333-355.

Qiao, N., Zhang, J.H., Liu, G.R. & Lin, C.D. (2013) Effects of family socioeconomic status and parental involvement on the academic performance of junior high school students: moderating effects of teacher support. Psychological Development and Education; 29(5):507-514.

Sui-Chu, E. H., & Willms, J. D. (1996) Effects of parental involvement on eighth-grade achievement. Sociology of Education; 69(2): 126-141.

Sun, Y. (1998) The academic success of East-Asian-American students-an investment model. Social Science Research; 27(4): 432?456.

Shao, J.J., Li, D., Guo, F., Wu P.P., & Zhang, D.J. (2016) Parental education involvement and migrant children’s academic performance, emotional adaptation: mediating role of sense of autonomy and ability. Chinese Journal of Special Education; 1:48-55.

Sibley, E., & Dearing, E. (2014) Family educational involvement and child achievement in early elementary school for American-Born and immigrant families. Psychology in the Schools; 51(8): 814-831.

Wang, M. T., & Sheikh-Khalil, S. (2014) Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school? Child Development; 85(2): 610-625.

Wilder, S. (2014) Effects of parental involvement on academic achievement: a meta-synthesis. Educational Review; 66(3): 377-397.

Wu, Z.H., Zhang, J., & Wang, M.W. (2017) What hinders parents’ involvement in their children’s education -- class differences, selective inhibition of school and parental involvement. Educational Research; 38(1):85-94.

Xie, G.H. (2012) The return of human capital of China’s floating population and social integration. Social Science in China; 4:103-124.

Yang, Z.C. (2017) Probing into the essence and practice of core literacy. Educational Research; 38(7):14-20.

Zhao, Y.D., & Hong, Y.B. (2012) Access to social capital and education -a perspective of network resources and social closure. Sociological Studies; 5:47-68.

Zhou, H., & Wu, X.W. (2008) Educational performance of migrant children and its influencing factors: multi-level linear model analysis. Population Research; 32(4):22-32.
How to Cite
Liang, W., Sun, R., & Ye, X. (2019). How Does Parental Involvement Affect Children’s Academic Development from A Core Literacy Perspective?. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 1(2), 109-130. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.19.ar1026