Integration of teaching protocol is an original creation of China’s basic education. This model emphasizes the balance between the student as the subject and the teacher as the dominant. “Target-Guided Teaching” refers to the use of target guidance strategy to improve teaching, enabling students to effectively use information tools and resources to improve their learning and adapt to social development. This paper studies the target guidance model based on the integration of teaching protocol. After analyzing the early studies, we defined the concepts related to the target guidance model based on the teaching protocol, and elaborated on the strategies for determining learning and using goals for the reference of front-line education workers.
Integration of Teaching Protocol, Target Guidance, Teaching Objective, Teaching Model, Elementary and Middle School
An, G., & Yan, L. (2010) “How Teachers Do Lesson Research” The fourth post-class seminar. People Education, 24:37-40. [Chinese]
Bai, H. (2014) Research on Chinese Learning evaluation based on target classification theory. Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University. [Chinese]
Ben, W. (2019) Target guidance, constructing an efficient English classroom. Middle School Curriculum Resources, 12:22-23. [Chinese]
Cao, S. (2014) High school geography classroom teaching target design and improvement strategy research. Central China Normal University. [Chinese]
Chen, X. (2002) Curriculum and Teaching Theory. Changchun: Northeast Normal University Press, pp194. [Chinese]
Clark, et al. (1985) Middle School Teaching Method (Part 1). Translated by Wang Tiesheng. Beijing: People’s Education Press, 163. [Chinese]
Deng, W. (2013) Research on the practical process of teaching objectives. Fuzhou: Fujian Normal University, pp6-pp17. [Chinese]
Dewey, J. (2006) Translated by Jiang Wenmin. How do we think about experience and education? Beijing: People’s Education Press. [Chinese]
Feng, L. (2007) Bloom’s mastery of learning theory and the transformation of students’ views and poor students. Liaoning: Journal of Liaoning Administration Institute. pp13. [Chinese]
General Research Group. (1997) Nine-year compulsory education “Target guidance” system. Journal of Sichuan Normal University (Philosophy Social Science Edition), (6):63-81. [Chinese]
Gu, X. (2003) Exploration of the teaching method of “objective, level, and guide”: Research on the method of classroom teaching in junior high school biology. Shanghai: East China Normal University. [Chinese]
Han, M. (2009) Primary school Chinese text color classroom guidance research. Hunan: Hunan Normal University. [Chinese]
Huang, Z. (2009) Physics “target-guided learning” classroom teaching method of practical exploration. Science Technology Information, 21:589-590. [Chinese]
Li, B., & Li, D. (1991) Teaching Theory. People’s Education Press. [Chinese]
Li, G. (2019) Briefly describe the autonomous learning plan under the guidance teaching mode of junior high school mathematics study plan. Curriculum Education Research, 31:152. [Chinese]
Li, J. (2009) New Concept Geography Teaching Theory. Peking University Press. [Chinese]
Li, J. (2012) Geography teaching design and case study in middle school. Science Press. [Chinese]
Li, X. (2019) Thoughts on the application of the “Six-Step Teaching Model of Learning Plan Guidance” in junior middle school history teaching. Basic Education Forum, 16:18-19. [Chinese]
Lin, Y. (2015) Practical research on “Target guidance” classroom teaching model of high school biology. Fuzhou: Fujian Normal University. [Chinese]
Liu, J. (2013) The status quo and countermeasures of high school chemistry teachers’ teaching goals. Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University. [Chinese]
Lorin, W.A., & Laren, A.S. (1994) Bloom’s Taxonomy. University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Lu, W. (2014) “Target guidance” to improve the effectiveness of junior high school biology classroom teaching. Shanghai: Shanghai Normal University, pp30-pp46. [Chinese]
Luo, Z. (2016) Follow the law of children’s psychological development to carry out family education. Asia Pacific Education, 17:246-247. [Chinese]
Lv, W. (2007) The specific implementation strategy of the “leveled, one study case, one guide” method in high school chemistry teaching. Kunming: Yunnan Normal University, pp2-pp12. [Chinese]
Ma, G. (1999) Students should become the main body of learning in optimized teaching. Journal of Liaoning Normal College (Social Science Edition), (2):3-5. [Chinese]
Marzanol, R.J. (2007) The new taxonomy of educational objectives. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks Ca: Corwin Press, pp11-pp16.
Masao, S. (1996) Translated by Zhong Qiquan. Principles of Teaching Theory. Beijing: People’s Education Press, pp12-pp15. [Chinese]
Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. (2011) Notice of the Ministry of Education on Issuing the Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education Chinese and Other Subjects (2011 Edition) [EB\OL]. 2011-12-28. http://old.moe.gov.cn/ /publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s8001/201404/xxgk_167340.html [Chinese]
Pan, N. (2020) A Discussion on the Learning Goals of the Primary School Mathematics Guided Classroom. Xue Weekly, (8): 109-110. [Chinese]
Pi, L. (2008). Psychology of Intellectual Education. Beijing: People’s Education Press, 12(2). [Chinese]
Robert, J., & Stenberg, E.L.G. (2002) Successful intellectual teaching: improving students’ learning ability and academic performance. Beijing: China Light Industry Press, pp47-pp160. [Chinese]
Shukran, A.R., & Nor, F.A.M. (2017) A critical analysis of Bloom’s Taxonomy in teaching creative and critical thinking skills in Malaysia through English literature. English Language Teaching, 10(9):245-256.
Song, X. (2013) The perception of Target guidance for the three-stage and nine-ring ring. Youth Society, 11:151-152. [Chinese]
Wang, B. (2004) Curriculum and Teaching Theory. Beijing: Higher Education Press, pp166. [Chinese]
Wang, G. (2002) “Target guidance” teaching and the cultivation of students’ self-study ability. Examination Question Research, (17):36-37. [Chinese]
Wang, J. (2003) Introduction to Classroom Research. Education Research, (6):79-84. [Chinese]
Wang, J. (2016) Investigation and analysis of the status quo of the “four-step Target guidance method” teaching mode of Chinese in the Sixth Middle School of Tumen City. Jilin: Yanbian University. [Chinese]
Wang, J., & Wang, A. (2010) “Target guidance-knowledge construction-application improvement” teaching model research. Value Engineer, 10(5):253-254. [Chinese]
Wang, M, & Zhong, X. (2010) Geography Teaching Theory (2nd Edition). Beijing: Higher Education Press, pp36. [Chinese]
Xia, J. (2017) Theory and Practice of Holistic Education. Nanjing: Jiangsu Science and Technology Publishing. [Chinese]
Xia, J.P. (2020) Teaching for student learning: Exploration of teaching strategies based on protocol-guided learning. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 5(1):451-467.
Xie, L.M. (2007) Instructional Design Application Guidance. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, pp43. [Chinese]
Yan, C. (2000) Quality education classroom optimization strategy. Education Press. [Chinese]
Yu, H., & Wu, H. (2015) On the anomie and standardization of learning case guidance. Chinese Journal in Education, 1:68-73. [Chinese]
Yu, X., & Guo, X. (2015) Learning Goal: Let Classroom Teaching be on the same track as the curriculum standards. Basic Education Forum, 30:45-48. [Chinese]
Yuan, Z. (Editor-in-Chief) (2004) Contemporary Pedagogy. Beijing: Educational Science Press, pp58. [Chinese]
Zhang, H. (2003) An attempt to apply constructivist learning theory to classroom teaching in middle school biology. Fuzhou: Fujian Normal University, pp1-pp36. [Chinese]
Zhao, J. (2014) Research and practice on the evaluation of the achievement of classroom teaching goals in high school geography. Wuhan: Central China Normal University. [Chinese]
Zhao, Y. (2016) Target guidance Classroom teaching model and the improvement of students’ mastered learning ability: Taking the Middle School of East District, Zhongshan City as an example. Wuhan: School of Education, Central China Normal University. [Chinese]
Zheng, J. (1990) On Bloom’s mastery of learning theory. Foreign Education Research, (1):28-30. [Chinese]
Zhong, Q et al. (2008) Curriculum and Teaching Theory. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, pp56-pp57. [Chinese]
Zhou, L.J., & Li, C.G. (2020) Can student self-directed learning improve their academic performance? Experimental evidence from the instruction of protocol-guided learning in China’s elementary and middle schools. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 5(1):469-480.
Zhu, S. (1999) Comparison of Heuristic Integrated Teaching and Target Teaching. Educational Science, pp4. [Chinese]
Zhu, X. (2010) Rational thinking on “Target guidance”. Information Technology Course, (10):29-30. [Chinese]
Zhuang, W. (2017) Instructional design research of primary school mathematics transformation strategy based on mastering learning theory. Yangzhou: Yangzhou University. [Chinese]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.