Published Dec 21, 2020

Lijuan Li  

Yali Wang

Haojuan Zhang


Teaching students in accordance with their aptitude and individualized training are the focus of the world’s attention, and it is also one of the eight education concepts in my country. Based on the CSSCI database, this research sorts out the concept and connotation of personalized learning and teaching in China, and analyzes the theoretical research progress of personalized learning and teaching, learning analysis technology, personalized recommendation technology, personalized learning path planning, and personalized learning system It summarizes the research focus and characteristics of domestic personalized learning and teaching theory from the perspectives of theory, practical application, and technology development, and analyzes the development trend of personalized learning and teaching in the era of artificial intelligence.


Download data is not yet available.



Personalized Learning, Big Data, Learning Analysis, Personalized Recommendation

Cao, X.M., & Zhu, Y. (2014). Research on personalized learning platform from the perspective of learning analysis. Open Education Research, 20(5):67-74. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13966/j.cnki.kfjyyj.2014.05.026

Chen, H.J., Dai, Y.H., Han, D.M., Feng, Y.J., & Huang, H.X. (2017). The study of learner portraits and personalized teaching under open teaching. Open Education Research, 23(3):105-112. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13966/j.cnki.kfjyyj.2017.03.012

Deng, Z.W. (2000a). Curriculum research on individualized teaching (Part 1). Global Education, 2000(2):34-38. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/96950x/200002/4127816.html

Deng, Z.W. (2000b). Curriculum research on individualized teaching (Part 2). Global Education, 2000(3):18-21. [Chinese] http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-WGJN200003003.htm

Ding, N.J. (2013). Classroom transformation based on personalized learning. Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 33(8):42-46. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.19877/j.cnki.kcjcjf.2013.08.007

Distance Learning Technology Standardization Committee, DLTSC. (2002). Distance Learning Technology Standardization System and 11 Draft Standards for Trial Use v1.0. [Chinese] http://www.edu.cn/html/keyanfz/ycjy01.shtml

Feng, Y.H. (2019). The value orientation and realization of MOOC development to promote personalized learning. Modern Distance Education Research, 31(5):46-53. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-5195.2019.05.006

Huang, C.Q., Zhu, N., Huang, Q.H., & Han, Z.M. (2019). Research on behavioral big data visualization supporting personalized learning. Open Education Research, 25(2): 53-64. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13966/j.cnki.kfjyyj.2019.02.006

Jiang, Q., Zhao, W., Li, S., & Wang, P.J. (2018). Research on accurate and personalized learning path mining in the context of big data: Analysis of group behavior based on Aprioriorll. e-Education Research, 39(2):45 -52. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2018.02.007

Jiang, Q., Zhao, W., Liu, H.X., & Li, S. (2015). Generation and evaluation of ability-oriented personalized learning path. Modern Distance Education Research, 2015(6):104-111. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-5195.2015.06.013

Jiang, W.T., Wang, C.P., & Tang, Y.W. (2017). Research on the construction of P-N-CRPE personalized learning model based on system theory. e-Education Research, 38(5):53-58. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2017.05.008

Jiang, Z.H. (2013). Model construction and strategy optimization of personalized learning in the network environment. Distance Education in China, 2013(2):48-51+95. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13541/j.cnki.chinade.2013.02.005

Jiao, C.Z. (2012). Construction of the effectiveness of personalized learning in online open universities under interactive teaching mode. Modern Distance Education, 2012(6):33-39. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-8700.2012.06.006

Kong, J., Guo, Y.C., Guo, & G.W. (2016). Individualized learning supported by technology: a new trend to promote student development. China Educational Technology, 2016(4):88-94. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2016.04.014

Li, C. (2019). How does e-book bag promote learning? Video analysis based on classroom recordings. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 3(1):135-154. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.19.ar071

Li, G., & Jiang, Y.J. (2005). The theoretical construction and characteristic analysis of individualized learning. Journal of Northeast Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 2005(3):152-156. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/81473x/200503/15750395.html

Li, H.J., Zhang, Z., & Zhang, P.W. (2019). Personalized learning resource recommendation method based on three-dimensional feature collaborative control. Computer Science, 46(S1):461-467. [Chinese] https://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh?docid=jsjkx2019z1100

Li, S.M., & Tian, J. (2011). Research on personalized learning service strategy in online learning. China Educational Technology, 2011(6):118-121. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2011.06.023

Liu, H.H., & Pan, Y. (2018). “Learner-centered”: Personalized learning practice logic from the perspective of empowerment theory. China Educational Technology, 2018(8):100-106. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2018.08.014

Liu, H.O., Liu, X., Yao, S.M., & Wang, Y.Y. (2019). Research on personalized learning precision service based on big data in-depth profiling. Research on Library Science, 2019(15):68-74. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.15941/j.cnki.issn1001-0424.2019.15.009

Liu, Q., Ding, P., Huang, X.Q., & Dong, J.J. (2018). Research on personalized learning recommendation system based on test question network. Modern Educational Technology, 28(6): 11-16. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-8097.2018.06.002

Liu, Y.P., Ai, Q,H., & Wang, M. (2014). Group Learning Types in Personalized Teaching Organization Forms. Journal of the Chinese Society of Education, 2014(7):48-53. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/82058x/201407/50155886.html

Mou, Z.J. (2016). Deciphering the personalized learning path supported by learner data portrait: The value of learning calculation. Journal of Distance Education, 34(6):11-19. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.15881/j.cnki.cn33-1304/g4.2016.06.002

Mou, Z.J. (2017). Rethinking and solving the theory of personalized learning in the “artificial intelligence+” era. Journal of Distance Education, 35(3):22-30. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.15881/j.cnki.cn33-1304/g4.2017.03.003

Mou, Z.J., & Wu, F.T. (2015). Research on personalized learning resource recommendation based on learner model in e-schoolbag. e-Education Research, 36(1):69-76. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/L10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2015.01.010

Mou, Z.J., Wang, W.B., Li, Y.T., Yan, & D.H. (2018). Modeling and simulation of personalized learning demand prediction in MOOCs environment: from the perspective of system dynamics. e-Education Research, 39(11):29-37. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2018.11.004

Nie, Y., & Jiang, T.T. (2013). Exploration of personalized learning space based on electronic schoolbags. Modern Educational Technology, 23(3):87-90. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-8097.2013.03.017

Pan, Z.Y., Zhong, S.C., Zhong, Y.J., & Zhang, Y.H. (2015). Research on the design and application of personalized learning tools. China Educational Technology, 2015(6):86-91. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/81536z/201506/664918909.html

Pei, Y. (2016). Analysis of personalized learning model based on education big data. Journal of Teaching and Management, 2016(27):101-103. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/88084x/201609/670160057.html

Ren, J.M., & Chen, Y. (2015). Individualized teaching design and its strategies. Theory and Practice of Education, 35(11):57-59. [Chinese] http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-JYLL201511019.htm

Shao, H., & Yu, H.Q. (2015). Research on the personalized learning model of flipped classroom learners based on ubiquitous learning resource sharing platform. Education Review, 2015(7):88-92. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/97172x/201507/665516695.html

Shen, Y.F. (2019). A personalized learning path recommendation model based on multiple intelligent algorithms. China Educational Technology, 2019(11):66-72. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/81536x/201911/7100284336.html

Shi, Y.F., Peng, H.C., Tong, M.W. (2019). Research on generative recommendation strategy of precise and personalized learning path based on learning profile. China Educational Technology, 2019(5):84-91. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/81536x/20195/7002036135.html

Su, Q., Chen, S.Z., Wu, W.M., Li, X.M., & Huang, D.K. (2020). Research on personalized learning recommendation model based on collaborative filtering algorithm of learning situation. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 4(5): 105-117. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2019.1092

Sun, L., & Zhang, T. (2017). Design and analysis of personalized learner model in online education. Journal of Distance Education, 35(3):93-101. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.15881/j.cnki.cn33-1304/g4.2017.03.011

Tan, J.B., & Gong, M.M. (2005). Research on a multi-agent-based personalized learning system. Journal of Information, 2005(11):67-68+71. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/90226x/200511/20301834.html

Tang, Y.W., Ru, L.N., Fan, J.R., Pang, J.W., & Zhong, S.C. (2019). Research on personalized learning path planning based on learner profile modeling. e-Education Research, 40(10):53-60. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2019.10.008

Wang, D.Q. (2008). Research on personalized learning support services in distance education. Distance Education in China, 2008(8): 38-42+79-80. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-458X.2008.08.009

Wang, H. (2017). The application of adaptive learning system in the construction of adult education personalized learning model. China Adult Education, 2017(3):9-11. [Chinese] http://library.ttcdw.com/uploadfiles/zk/1507703619.pdf

Wang, X.C., & Zhu, L. (2008). ISI: A personalized learning service platform built by teachers and students. Modern Educational Technology, 2008(10):93-96. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/82492x/200810/28446848.html

Wang, Y.F. (2008). Research on e-Learning system supporting personalized learning. China Educational Technology, 2008(3):102-107. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2008.03.026

Wu, H.Y. (2015). The integration of personalized learning concepts and flipped classroom teaching mode. Modern Educational Technology, 25(8):46-52. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-8097.2015.08.007

Xia, J. (2020). Teaching for student learning: exploration of teaching strategies based on protocol-guided learning. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 5(1):451-467. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.20.ar011

Xia, X.M. (2013). Understanding and evaluating personalized learning: a classroom observation perspective. Journal of the Chinese Society of Education, 2013(3):35-38. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/82058x/201303/44967728.html

Xiong, J.J. (2013). The implementation path of students’ individualized learning under the background of small class education. Research in Educational Development, 33(18):40-44. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.14121/j.cnki.1008-3855.2013.18.006

Xiong, M., & Bu, Q.G. (2014). Practical exploration of personalized teaching organization form. Journal of the Chinese Society of Education, 2014(7):42-47. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/82058x/201407/50155885.html

Xiong, M., Wang, Y.L., & Ai, Q.H. (2011) Individualized teaching design and implementation strategies. Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 31(8):18-23. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.19877/j.cnki.kcjcjf.2011.08.005

Yang, J.Z., & Zhang, J.P. (2015). Research on the construction of personalized learning environment based on social networks. Open Education Research, 21(2): 89-97. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13966/j.cnki.kfjyyj.2015.02.010

Yang, L. (2016). Research on the design strategy of independent and personalized learning environment based on MOOC. Experimental Technology and Management, 2016(4):88-94. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.16791/j.cnki.sjg.2016.04.046

Yang, L. (2016). The construction of learner’s personalized learning model in MOOC environment. Contemporary Education Sciences, 2016(9):40-42. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/82379a/201609/669144771.html

Yang, L.N., Liu, Ke, C., & Yan, Z.J. (2009). Research on personalized learning resource recommendation under the cooperation framework of case reasoning Agent. China Educational Technology, 2009(12):105-109. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2009.12.026

Yang, L.N., Wei, Y.H., Xiao, K.X., & Wang, W.H. (2020). Research on personalized learning service mechanism driven by educational big data. e-Education Research, 41(9):68-74. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2020.09.010

Yang, X., Jiang, Q., & Zhao, W. (2016). Big data learning analysis supports personalized learning research-technology returns to the essence of education. Modern Distance Education, 2016(4):71-78. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13927/j.cnki.yuan.2016.0043

Yang, Y.Q. (2014). Construction of MOOC learners’ personalized learning model. China Educational Technology, 2014(6):6-10+68. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2014.06.002

Yang, Y.Q. (2014). MOOC independent and personalized learning environment design strategy research. Modern Educational Technology, 24(7):12-17+34. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-8097.2014.07.002

Yang, Y.Q., & Jiao, J.L. (2014). MOOC learner’s personalized learning ecological design framework. e-Education Research, 35(8):32-37+56. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2014.08.005

Yi, J.M. (2005). On individualized teaching and individualized learning. Education and Vocation, 2005(6):33-35. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1004-3985.2005.06.017

Yu, X.J. (2015). Research on the construction of a personalized teaching information service platform based on big data application. Information Science, 33(11):53-56. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13833/j.cnki.is.2015.11.010

Yue, J.F., & Chen, Y. (2017). Distance learner modeling and personalized learning application based on big data analysis. Distance Education in China, 2017(7): 34-39. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13541/j.cnki.chinade.2017.07.004

Zhang, J.L., Guo, S.Q., & He, X.C. (2017). Personalized learning space (learning space v3.0) and school education reform: the connotation of online learning space and school education development research 5. e-Education Research, 38(7) :32-37. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2017.07.005

Zhang, X.X., & Mou, Z.J. (2018). Research on the precise teaching model design for personalized learning under the data-based learning environment. Modern Distance Education, 2018(5):65-72. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13927/j.cnki.yuan.2018.0053

Zhao, N., Zhou, X., Liu, B., & Liu, W. (2020). Guiding teaching strategies with the education platform during the COVID-19 epidemic: Taking Guiyang No. 1 Middle School teaching practice as an example. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 5(2):531-539. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.20.rp005

Zhao, X.K., Xu, X.D., Long, & S.R. (2017). Collaborative recommendation: a new perspective of personalized learning path generation. Distance Education in China, 2017(5):24-34. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13541/j.cnki.chinade.20170517.008

Zheng, Y.X. (2010). Goal-driven personalized learning mode supported by information technology. e-Education Research, 2010(7):89-92. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13811/j.cnki.eer.2010.07.025

Zheng, Y.X. (2014). Research on the individualized learning of college students under the information technology environment. China Educational Technology, 2014(7):126-132. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-9860.2014.07.020

Zheng, Y.X. (2015). Research on the status quo of college students’ personalized learning under the information technology environment. Distance Education in China, 2015(7):19-25+79. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13541/j.cnki.chinade.2015.07.004

Zheng, Y.X. (2015). Research on the teaching mode of college students’ individualized learning from the perspective of new constructivism. Journal of Distance Education, 33(4):48-58. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.15881/j.cnki.cn33-1304/g4.2015.04.007

Zhong, Z.R. (2012). The construction and application of personalized learning mode based on Web2.0 environment. China Educational Technology, 2012(8):107-110. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/81536x/201208/42712968.html

Zhou, L., & Li, C. (2020). Can student self-directed learning improve their academic performance? Experimental evidence from the instruction of protocol-guided learning in China’s elementary and middle schools. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 5(1), 469-480. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.20.ar016

Zhou, L., Li, F., Wu, S., & Zhou, M. (2020). “School’s Out, But Class’s On”, The largest online education in the world today: Taking China’s practical exploration during The COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control as an example. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 4(2):501-519. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.20.ar023

How to Cite
Li, L., Wang, Y., & Zhang, H. (2020). Review of the Personalized Learning In China. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 7(2), 893-912. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.20.re026