We used the Hierarchical Linear Bernoulli Model based on China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2016 data and provincial high school acceptance rate data. We explored the relationship between provincial high school entrance examination competition and students’ extracurricular tutoring participation during compulsory education. The study found that the high school acceptance rate and occupational high school acceptance rate have no significant effect on the participation rate of students’ extracurricular tutoring in the compulsory education stage. However, the high school acceptance rate has a significant positive impact on the participation rate of students’ extracurricular tutoring, and there is a heterogeneous effect on the participation rate of students’ extracurricular tutoring from families of different social classes. The higher the high school acceptance rate, the greater the probability of students from families with higher social strata participating in extracurricular tutoring. The demonstration high school acceptance rate has a significant negative impact on students’ extracurricular tutoring participation rate. It has a heterogeneous influence on students’ extracurricular tutoring participation in different school stages and social class families. The education administration department should actively expand high-quality, high school educational resources and increase the demonstration high school acceptance rate. And to increase the number of admissions for the demonstration high school to disadvantaged families with lower social strata to alleviate the pressure of families and students from the high school entrance examination competition. This can not only reduce the participation rate of students’ extracurricular tutoring during the compulsory education stage, but also promote the equalization of high-quality high school entrance opportunities for children of different classes of families.
Extracurricular Tutoring, High School Acceptance Rate, High School, Demonstration High School, Education Competition
Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implication for planners. Fundamentals of educational planning series, 1999, number 11.
Bray, M., & Kwok, P. (2003). Demand for private supplementary tutoring: Conceptual considerations, and socioeconomic patterns in Hong Kong. Economics of Education Review, 22(6):611-620. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00032-3
Chu, Z. (2020). The characteristics and enlightenment of China’s high school education development. Journal of Hebei Normal University (Education Science), 22(02):29-36. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.ese.2020.02.007
Dang, H.A. (2007). The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam. Economics of Education Review, 26(6):683-698. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2007.10.003
Dang, H.A., & Rogers, F. H. (2008). The growing phenomenon of private tutoring: Does it deepen human capital, widen inequalities, or waste resources? World Bank Research Observer, 23(2):161-200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lkn004
Lee, S., & Shouse, R. C. (2011). The impact of prestige orientation on shadow education in South Korea. Sociology Of Education, 84(3):212-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040711411278
Liu, J. (2004). Educational choice and its consequences. Journal of the Renmin University of China, 18(1):64-71. [Chinese] http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-ZRDX200401009.htm
Lucas, S.R. (2001). Effectively maintained inequality: Education transitions, track mobility, and social background effects. American Journal of Sociology, 106(6):1642-1690. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/321300
Ministry of Education. (2020). 2020 National Education Development Statistical Bulletin [EB/OL]. [2021-03-01]. Retrieved June 03, 2021 from http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2021-03/01/content_5589503.htm
Raftery, A.E., & Hout, M. (1993). Maximally maintained inequality: Expansion, reform, and opportunity in Irish education, 1921-75. Sociology of Education, 1993, 66(1):41-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2112784
Song, K.O., Park, H.J., & Sang, K.A. (2013). A cross-national analysis of the student- and school-level factors affect the demand for private tutoring. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14 (2):125-139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-012-9236-7
Wu, Y. (2014). A study on the status quo of educational tutoring in junior middle schools from the perspective of education equity: Taking guangzhou as an example. Educational Research, 35(8): 75-84. [Chinese] http://qikan.cqvip.com/Qikan/Article/Detail?id=661667526
Xue, H. (2015). From school education to shadow education: educational competition and social reproduction. Peking University Education Review, 13(3):47-69+188-189. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.19355/j.cnki.1671-9468.2015.03.005
Xue, H. (2016). Extracurricular tuition, academic performance, and social reproduction. Education and Economy, 32(2):32-43. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1003-4870.2016.02.005
Xue, H., & Ding, X. (2009). A study on educational tutoring for Chinese urban students. Educational Research, 16(1):39-46. [Chinese] https://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/periodical/jyyj200901006
Xue, H., & Fang, C. (2019). Extracurricular tutoring in my country’s compulsory education: Status quo and trend. Educational Economics Review, 4(4):75-97. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.19512/j.cnki.issn2096-2088.2019.04.005
Xue, H., & Fang, C. (2020). Entrance examination competition and extracurricular tutoring for students: An empirical analysis based on the Chinese family tracking survey. Peking University Education Review, 18(3):172-186+192. [Chinese] https://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/periodical/bjdxjypl202003009
Yang, B. (2000). Educational choice and class reproduction research on the stratification mechanism of high school education opportunity allocation in the county. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press.
Zhang, W., Bray, M., & Li, H. (2017). The influencing factors and policy significance of shadow education: Taking Chongqing as an example. Educational Science Research, 28(6):56-62. [Chinese] http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-JYKY201706012.htm
Zhou, D., & Wu, Y. (2018). Educational competition and reference groups: A sociological explanation of the widespread phenomenon of extracurricular tutoring. Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Social Science Edition), 45(5):84-97. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-4608.2018.05.010
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.