Compared with cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills cannot be accomplished through simple academic level tests. It is more through self- reported research and observation reports of others. These two methods are relatively easy to be proposed and tested, but they are easily affected by social expectations, response style and familiarity, resulting in deviations from the real results (Braun et al., 2001; He & Van de Vijver, 2015). Therefore, non-cognitive ability assessment is more challenging.
China, Education, Non-Cognitive Ability
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