To explore the relationship and mechanism of school loose-tight culture to middle school bullying, a total of 808 students were selected from three middle schools in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province of China, to conduct a questionnaire survey. The study used the school loose-tight culture scale, the collective moral disengagement scale, the collective efficacy scale, and the bullying scale for middle school students. The results showed that (i) school loose-tight culture significantly predicted the occurrence of school bullying; (ii) school loose-tight culture was significantly negatively correlated with collective moral disengagement and school bullying but positively correlated with collective efficacy. Further, collective moral disengagement was significantly positively correlated with school bullying, but collective efficacy was significantly negatively correlated with school bullying; (iii) school loose-tight culture inhibited school bullying through the dual mediating effects of collective moral disengagement and collective efficacy at the same time.
School Loose-Tight Culture, Collective Moral Disengagement, Collective Efficacy, Campus Bullying
This work was supported by the National Social Science Fund Project “Mental Generation Mechanism and Intervention Research on Campus Violence in Middle School Students” (project #: 16BSH104).
Cai, C.F., & Zhou, Z.K. (2006). A study on the behavioral stability of children with external problems. Advances in Psychological Science, 14(1):66-72. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-3710.2006.01.011
Gelfand, M.J., Li, R., & Gordon, S. (2017). Tightness-looseness and consumer behavior: The road ahead. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27(3):405-407. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2017.05.001
Gelfand, M.J., Raver, J.L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L.M., Lun, J., Lim, B.C., Duan, L., Almaliach, A., Ang, S., Arnadottir, J., Aycan, Z., Boehnke, K., Boski, P., Cabecinhas, R., Chan, D., Chhokar, J., D'Amato, A., Ferrer, M., Fischlmayr, I.C., Fischer, R., Fülöp, M., Georgas, J., Kashima, E.S., Kashima, Y., Kim, K., Lempereur, A., Marquez, P., Othman, R., Overlaet, B., Panagiotopoulou, P., Peltzer, K., Perez-Florizno, L.R., Ponomarenko, L., Realo, A., Schei, V., Schmitt, M., Smith, P.B., Soomro, N., Szabo, E., Taveesin, N., Toyama, M., Van de Vliert, E., Vohra, N., Ward, C., & Yamaguchi, S. (2011). Differences between tight and loose cultures: A 33-nation study. Science, 332(6033):1100-1104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1197754
Goddard, R.A. (2002). Theoretical and empirical analysis of the measurement of collective efficacy: The development of a short form. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(1): 97-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013164402062001007
Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, E. (2015). Moral disengagement and aggression: Comments on the special issue. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 61(1):192-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.1.0192
Hu, C.G. (2017). Campus bullying: meaning, causes and prevention strategies. Educational Research and Experiment, 2017(1):73-79.
Lu, J., Chen, H., & Le, G.A. (2017). Loose-tight culture: A new dimension of cross-cultural psychology research. Advances in Psychological Science, 25(5):887-902. Available at: http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00887
Sapouna, M. (2010). Collective efficacy in the school context: Does it help explain victimization and bullying among Greek primary and secondary school students? Journal of Interpers Violence, 25(10):1912-1927 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260509354509
Sun, L.J., Heng, S.P., Niu, G.F., Li, J.Y., Du, H.Q., & Hu, X.G. (2017). The influence of childhood psychological abuse on adolescent aggressive behavior: The mediating effect of security and loneliness. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25(5).
Valois, R.F., Zullig, K.J., & Revels, A.A. (2017). Aggressive and violent behavior and emotional self-efficacy: Is there a relationship for adolescents? Journal of School Health, 87(4):269-277. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12493
Wang, J.Y., Yan, X.C. & Yan, H.X. (2017). Campus ethics analysis and construction of campus bullying phenomenon. Journal of Chinese Education, 2017(3):54-60. Available at: http://www.jcse.com.cn/CN/Y2017/V0/I3/54
Wang, L., Xing, S.Y., X.Y.Y., & Chen, J. (2018). The influence of class environment on violent behavior of middle school students: the mediating effect of moral refusal. Educational Research and Experiment, 2018(5):88-91.
Wang, X.F., Yan, L.S., & Qiu, X.Y. (2019). Reliability and validity test of the school bullying moral rejection scale in domestic middle school students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27(1):54-58.
Wen, Z.L., & Ye, B.J. (2014). Mediating effect analysis: Method and model development. Advances in Psychological Science, 22(5):731-745.
Yang, J.P., & Wang, X.C. (2012). The influence of moral refusal on adolescents’ aggressive behavior: A moderated mediating effect. Psychological Bulletin, 44(8):1075-1085. Available at: http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2012/V44/I8/1075
Yang, W.M. (2014). Research on the Influencing Factors of Middle School Students’ Bullying Behavior: Based on Multi-layer Analysis of HLM Model. Zhejiang: Master’s Thesis of Zhejiang Normal University.
Zeng, X.R., Wang, Y., Ding, J.H., & Zhou, H. (2019). Classroom bullying norms and bullying behavior: The mediating effect of group fear and peer pressure. Psychology News, 51(8):935-944. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00935
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.