Based on the data of a large scale survey conducted by Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment Toward Basic Education Quality at Beijing Normal University, this study examined the role of school in reducing education inequality. The results showed that schools concentrated with resilient students had higher mean socioeconomic status (SES) and SES heterogeneity, more education resources, higher teaching quality, and more positive school climate, and these factors also functioned as significant predictors of academic resilience. Provid-ing socioeconomically disadvantaged students with access to both high SES schools and enriched school resources can even the education ine-quality related to family background. In order to promote education equality, policymakers and education practitioners should take measures to reduce the degree of stratification and encourage student integration, promote equal distribution of high quality education resources among schools, enhance teachers’ ability to effectively use individualized, coop-erative and inquiry teaching methods, and build a supportive climate.
Socioeconomic Status, Disadvantaged Students, Resilient Students, Educational Outcome Equity
Agasisti, T., Avvisati, F. & Borgonovi, F. et al. (2018) Academic resilience: What schools and countries do to help disadvantaged students succeed in PISA. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 167.
Agasisti,T.,& Longobardi, S. (2017) Equality of educational opportunities, schools’ characteristics and resilient students: An empirical study of EU-15 countries using OECD-PISA 2009 Data. Soc Indic Res, 134(3): 1-37.
Alexander, K.L., Entwisle, D.R. &Olsen, H.R. (2001) Schools, achievement, and inequality: A seasonal perspective. Educ Eval Policy An, 23(2): 171-191.
Anjani, K. (2016) Conversations in education reform: Socioeconomic integration as a tool for student success. Gett Soc Sci Rev, 1(1): 46-64.
Baker, D.P., Goesling, B. &Letendre, G.K. (2002) Socioeconomic status, school quality, and national economic development: A cross-national analysis of the “Heyneman-Loxley Effect” on mathematics and science achievement. Comp Educ Rev, 46(3): 291-312.
Berkowitz, R., Glickman, H. &Benbenishty, R. et al. (2015) Compensating, mediating, and moderating effects of school climate on academic achievement gaps in Israel. Teach Coll Rec, 117(4): 1-34.
Berkowitz, R., Moore, H. &Astor, R.A. et al. (2017) A Research synthesis of the associations between socioeconomic background, inequality, school climate, and academic achievement. Rev Educ Res, 87(2): 425-469.
Borman, G.D., & Dowling, M. (2010) Schools and inequality: A multilevel analysis of Coleman’s equality of educational opportunity data. Teach Coll Rec, 112(5): 1201-1246.
Cheema, J.R. & Kitsantas, A. (2014) Influence of disciplinary classroom climate on high school student self-efficacy and mathematics achievement: A look at gender and racial ethnic differences. Int J Sci Math Educ, 12(5): 1261-1279.
Conwayturner, J. (2016) Does diversity matter? The impact of school racial composition on the academic achievement of elementary school students in an ethnically diverse low-income sample. Dissertation of George Mason University.
Downey, D.B. & Condron, D.J. (2016) Fifty years since the Coleman report: Rethinking the relationship between schools and inequality. Sociol Educ, 89(3): 207-220.
Downey, D.B., Hippel, P.T.V. & Broh, B.A. (2004) Are schools the great equalizer? Cognitive inequality during the summer months and school year. Am Sociol Rev, 69(5): 613-635.
Downey, J. A. (2008) Recommendations for fostering educational resilience in the classroom. Prev Sch Fail, 53(1): 56-64.
Du, P. &Yang, Z.C. (2012) Research on school effectiveness and it’s influencing factors: An application of the Creemers’ comprehensive model of school effectiveness in China. Education & Economy, 2: 45-50.
Finn, J.D. &Achilles, C.M. (1999) Tennessee’s class size study: Findings, implications, misconceptions. Educ Eval Policy An, 21(2): 97-109.
Gustafsson, J.E., Nielsen, T. & Hansen, K.Y. (2016) School characteristics moderating the relation between student socio-economic status and mathematics achievement in Grade 8: Evidence from 50 countries in TIMSS 2011. Stu Educ Eval, 57: 16-30.
He, M.J. (2013) On characters of migrant and left-behind resilient students and the predicted effect of these characters on academic resilient outcome. Dissertation of Beijing Normal University.
He, M.J., Yang, T. & Xin, T. (2016) Mentality × resources: the key influencing factors of primary migrant and left-behind children’s academic achievement -- based on the research of 8,590 fourth-grade primary school students in China. Elementary and Middle School Administration, (11): 27-31.
Heyneman S.P. &Loxley, W.A. (1983) The effect of primary school quality on academic achievement across twenty-nine high- and low-income countries. Am J Sociol, 88(6): 1162-1194.
Hou, Y.N. &Shen, A.X. (2014) The impact of school resources on quality & equality of basic education in shanghai: Empirical study based on PISA2009, Educ Res Mon, 9: 38-45.
Kahlenberg, R.D. (2013) From all walks of life: New hope for school integration. Am Educ, 36(2): 2-14.
Klieme, E. , Hu, Y.M. & Peng, P. (2014) The application of international large-scale assessment on educational effectiveness research: The theory, methodology and limitations. Educ Res, 3: 39-47.
Klieme, E., Pauli, C. & Reusser, K. (2009) The Pythagoras study: Investigating effects of teaching and learning in Swiss and German mathematics classroom. In T. Janik & T. Seidel (Eds.), The power of video studies in investigating teaching and learning in the classroom (pp. 137-160). Münster, Germany: Waxmann.
Konstantopoulos, S. & Chung, V. (2011) Teacher effects on minority and disadvantaged students’ grade 4 achievement. J Educ Res, 104(2): 73-86.
Lee, V.E., Winfield, L.F. & Wilson, T.C. (1991) Academic behaviors among high-achieving African American students. Educ Urb Soc, 24(1): 65-86.
Li, H.L. & Zhang, W.X. (2006) Review of the studies on psychological resilience. J Shandong Nor Uni (Hum Soc Sci), 51(3): 149-152.
Lian, Y.J. & Liao, J.P. (2017) How to test the inter-group coefficient difference after group regression? J Zhengzhou Univ Aero, 35(6): 97-109.
Longobardi, S. &Agasisti, T. (2014) Educational institutions, resources, and students’ resiliency: An empirical study about OECD countries. Econ Bull, 34(2): 1055-1067.
Manski, C.F. (1993) Identification of endogenous social effects: The reflection problem. Rev Econ Stu, 60(3): 531-542.
Ndlovu, N. (2018) School resources and student achievement: A study of primary schools in Zimbabwe. Educ Res Rev, 13(7): 236-248.
Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S. &Hedges, L.V. (2004) How large are teacher effects? Educ Eval Policy An, 26(3): 237-257.
OECD. (2005) School factors related to quality and equity: Results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD Publishing.
OECD. (2011) Against the odds: Disadvantaged students who succeed in school. Paris: OECD Publishing.
OECD. (2018) Equity in education: Breaking down barriers to social mobility. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Palardy, G.J. (2013) High school socioeconomic segregation and student attainment. Am Educ Res J, 50(4): 714-754.
Perry, L.B. & McConney, A. (2010) Does the SES of the school matter? An examination of socioeconomic status and student achievement using PISA 2003. Teach Coll Rec, 112(4): 7-8.
Perry, L.B. (2012) What do we know about the causes and effects of school socio-economic composition? A review of the literature. Educ Soc, 30(1): 19-35.
Pu, X.W. (2016) Effect sizes in quantitative analysis: Significance, computation and interpretation. Psyc Expl, 36(1): 64-69.
Raudenbush, S.W. & Eschmann, R.D. (2015) Does schooling increase or reduce social inequality? Annu Rev Sociol, 41(1): 443-470.
Ready, D.D. (2010) Socioeconomic disadvantage, school attendance, and early cognitive development: The differential effects of school exposure. Sociol Educ, 83(4): 271-286.
Ren, C.R. &Xin, T. (2011) Responsibilities of schools in the process to achieve learning outcome equity: A perspective from the impacts of schools on students outcome. J Sch Stu, 8(2): 30-35.
Roorda, D.L., Koomen, H.M. &Spilt, J.L., et al., (2011) The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Rev Educ Res, 81(4): 493-529.
Ross, C.E. & Mirowsky, J. (2006) Sex differences in the effect of education on depression: Resource multiplication or resource substitution? Soc Sci Med, 63(5): 1400-1413.
Rumberger, R. & Palardy, G. (2005) Does segregation still matter? The impact of student composition on academic achievement in high school. Teach Coll Rec, 107(9): 1999-2045.
Sosa T. &Gomez, K. (2012) Connecting teacher efficacy beliefs in promoting resilience to support of Latino students. Urb Educ, 47(5): 876-909.
Southworth, S. (2010) Examining the effects of school composition on North Carolina student achievement over time. Educ Policy An Arc, 18(29): 1-45.
Vanlaar, G., Kyriakides, L. & Panayiotou, A., et al., (2016) Do the teacher and school factors of the dynamic model affect high- and low-achieving student groups to the same extent? A cross-country study. Res Pap Educ, 31(2): 183-211.
Voight, A., Austin, G. &Hanson, T. (2013) A climate for academic success: How school climate distinguishes schools that are beating the achievement odds. San Francisco, CA: West Ed.
Wang, D.D. & Zhou, J.X. (2017) Effects of poverty on structure and function of brain and educational intervention, J Bio Educ, 5(1): 47-54.
Wang, M.C., Haertl, G.D. & Walberg, H.J. (1998) Building educational resilience. Phi Delta Kappa, 30: 1-64.
Waxman, H.C., Huang, S.L. & Wang, M.C. (1997) Investigating the multilevel classroom learning environment of resilient and non-resilient students from inner-city elementary schools. Int J Educ Res, 27(4): 343-353.
Waxman, H.C., Padrón, Y.N. &Shin, J.Y., et al. (2008) Closing the achievement gap within reading and mathematics classrooms by fostering Hispanic students’ educational resilience. Int J Soc Sci, 3(1): 641-651.
Wu, Y.X. & Huang, C. (2016) Stratification of the School Hierarchy and Educational Expectations of Students in Basic Education. Soc Sci China, (4): 111-134.
Xie, G.H. & Zhang, Y.Y. (2018) School of golden touch? A study of school’s effectiveness in improving students’ academic performance. Soc Stu, (3): 141-165+245.
Zimmer, R.W. & Toma, E.F. (2000) Peer effects in private and public schools across countries. J Policy Man, 19(1): 75-92.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.