Published May 31, 2022

Xiaoqiao Cheng  


In recent years, shadow education—paid private supplementary tutoring providing additional educational assistance for students who are preparing for a variety of examinations—has become one of the fastest growing industries in a number of countries around the world, causing concern among governments and education policymakers, who believe that shadow education exacerbates the financial burden on poor families and exacerbates education inequality (Yu & Zhang, 2022).


Byun, S. Y. (2014). Shadow education and academic success in Republic of Korea. In Korean education in changing economic and demographic contexts (pp. 39-58). Springer, Singapore.

Entrich, S. R. (2015). The decision for shadow education in Japan: Students’ choice or parents’ pressure? Social Science Japan Journal, 18(2):193-216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ssjj/jyv012

Li, J., & He, R. (2022). Family Time and Money Inputs in Education and Teenager Development: Interpretation of Social Capital, Cultural Capital, and Shadow Education. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 11(2): 1455-1460. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.22.ab002

Yu, J., & Zhang, R. (2022). A review of shadow education. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 11(2):1579-1593. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.22.re058
How to Cite
Cheng, X. (2022). Parent Time Input in Teenager Education Matters More Than Shadow Education. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 11(1), 1425–1427. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.22.co011