Published Jan 31, 2020

Yahui Tian

Jijun Yao  


Using meta-analysis, this study analyzes a total of 20 effects on 11 articles on the impact of Chinese school resource investment on student performance. We found that: 1) the overall impact of school resources on student performance is significant (effect amount is 0.093, p = 0.001); 2) compared with the effect of school human resources investment and financial resources investment, human resources are superior, the effect amounts are 0.121 (p <0.01), 0.120 (p = 0.014); the effect of material resource is the lowest, but the impact is also very important with an effect amount of 0.099 (p = 0.009); 3) in human resource investment, teacher experience, teacher education, teacher qualifications, teacher training, teacher titles, and student-teacher ratios all have a positive and significant impact on student performance. Among the material resources, computer networking rates, average student fixed assets, average classroom and school areas affect students’ achievements significantly; 4) from a disciplinary perspective, the impact of school resource investment on Chinese language and mathematics is more significant, and from a regional perspective, the impact on central and western regions is more significant. We suggest based on our findings as: First, increase investment in school resources, especially financial resources and investment in schools in the western region; Second, pay attention to the input and allocation of teachers’ resources, especially to improve the shortage of small-scale high-quality teachers in rural areas; Third, keep pace with the times and improve the allocation of physical conditions in schools.



Meta-Analysis, School Resource Investment, Student Performance

Supporting Agencies

This study was supported by the Jiangsu Province Superior Discipline Construction Project Funding Project (PAPD).

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L.V., Higgins, J.P.T., & Rothstein, H.R. (2009) Introduction to meta-analysis. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons:28-29.

Coleman, J.S., et al. (1966) Equality of educational opportunity. Report prepared for the US Office of Education. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Ferguson, C.J. (2009) An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Profe Psychol: Res Prac, 40(5):532-538.

Fuller, B. (1987) What school factors raise achievement in the third world? Rev Edu Res, 57(3):255-292.

Glass, G.V. (1976) Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Edu Res, 6(5):3-8.

Gu, X.Q., Hu, M.H. (2018) Has the learning effect of electronic schoolbags happened? A meta-analysis based on 39 papers at home and abroad. Tel Edu Res, 5:19-25.

Hanushek, E.A. (1989) The impact of differential expenditures on school performance. Edu Res, 18(4):45-65.

Hanushek, E.A. (1995) Interpreting recent research on schooling in developing countries. World Bank Res Obse 10(2):227-246.

Hanushek, E.A. (1997) Assessing the effects of school resource on student performance: An update. Edu Eva Policy Anal, 19(2) (Summer):141-164.

Hanushek, E.A. (2003) The failure of input-based schooling policies. Econ J, 113(485):64-98.

Hedges, L.V., Richard, D., Laine, R.D., Greenwald, R. (1994) Does money matter? A meta -analysis of studies of the effects of differential school inputs on student outcomes. Edu Res, 23(3):5-14.

Hu, Y.M., (2007) A study on the relationship between school resource allocation and students’ academic achievements: Based on an empirical analysis of rural primary and middle schools in five provinces of the west. Beijing: Beijing Nor Univ, 8.

Jiang, M.H. (2000) Analysis of education costs. High Edu Press, pp79-pp81.

John, H. (2015) Visible learning: A comprehensive report on over 800 meta-analyses of academic achievements. Beijing: Edu Sci Press. Translated by Peng, Z.M., et al.

Li, X.Y., Zhang, J.S. (2018) The impact of public education investment on school education results: an empirical study based on data from 70 elementary schools in Hubei Province. J Zhongnan Univ Econ Law, 6:81-88.

Ling, Y.D. (2015) Evaluation on the efficiency of urban education fiscal expenditure in China. Finac Superv, 2:34-38.

Lipsey, M.W., Wilson, D.B. (2001) Practical meta-analysis. Sage Publications, Inc. pp31.

Lu, X.F., Tang, Y.H., Zeng, F.M. (2011) Effect amount: estimation, reporting and interpretation, Explo Psychol, 31(3):260-264.

Mark W. Lipsey David B. Wilson. (2001). Practical metaanalysis, Applied Social Research Methods Series Volume 49: pp67

Nye, C., Foster, S.H., and Hedges, L.V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3):237-257.

Pentti, N., Heli, L., Antti, H. (2013) Standardised regression coefficient as an effect size index in summarizing findings in epidemiological studies, Epid Biostat Pub Hlth, 10(4): e8854-1-e8854-15.

Rob, G., Larry, V.H., Richard, D.L. (1996) The effect of school resources on student achievement. Rev Edu Res, 66(3):361-396.

Rolle, A. (2004) Out with the old-in with the new: Thoughts on the future of educational productivity research. Pea J Edu, 79(3):31-56.

Rosenthal, R. (1979) The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychol Bull, 86:638-641.

Rowe, K.J., Rowe, K.S. (1993) Assessing student behaviour: the utility and measurement properties of a simple parent and teacher-aalian. Assoc Res Edu, Fremantle, WA.

Rücker, G., Schwarzer, G., Carpenter, J.R. et al. (2008) Undue reliance on I2 in assessing heterogeneity may mislead. BMC Med Res Method, 8 (1):79.

Wang, C.R., Hu, Y.B. (2018) Can flipping the classroom really improve academic performance? A meta-analysis based on 38 experimental and quasi-experimental studies, Open Edu Res, 24(4):72-80.

Xia, L.X. (2005) Meta-analysis and its application in social science research. J NWU (Soc Sci Edit), 42(5):55-58.

Yu, X. (2019) Funding for general senior high school education in poor areas of central and western China: Achievements, problems and countermeasures, J Edu, 15(3):94-103.

Zeng, Z.B., Yao, J.J. (2018) Finding the “best evidence”: How to use meta-analysis to conduct literature review: Taking the study of the impact of STEM education on student achievement as an example. Selected Essays of “The Fourth Empirical Forum on Education” of East China Normal University, 2018.

Zhang, T.S., Dong, S.J., Zhou, Z.R. (2015) Advanced meta-analysis method: Based on Stata. Shanghai: Fudan Univ Press.

Zhao, B.H. (2013). Analysis of family and school factors affecting students’ academic achievements. Edu Res, 3:88-97.

Zheng, L.Q., Cui, P.P., Li, X. (2018) Can mobile learning promote learning performance: A meta-analysis based on 92 studies of international English Journals in 2011-2017. Modern Dist Edu, 6:45-54.
How to Cite
Tian, Y., & Yao, J. (2020). The Impact of School Resource Investment on Student Performance: A Meta-analysis Based on Chinese Literature. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 4(1), 389–410. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.20.ar011
Original Article