Published Jul 30, 2022

Ching Ho Cheng  


Based on the educational hierarchical reproduction theory and the MMI and EMI hypotheses, this paper discusses the impact of the tracking of general and vocational education at the secondary level on higher education opportunity equity among social classes. The study finds that increasing gross enrollment rates of both general high schools and secondary vocational schools can help improve the equity in admission opportunities of colleges and universities among social strata; expanding the share of general high school places by adjusting the structure of general and vocational tracks (that is, the general-vocational ratio) can effectively reduce the class disparities in college and university admission opportunities; neither the change in the scale nor in the structure of general and vocational tracks will contribute to alleviating class inequality in top university enrollment opportunities.



Shadow Education, Online Education, Secondary School

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How to Cite
Cheng, C. H. (2022). Online Shadow Education in Hong Kong: Perspectives from Secondary School Students and Private Tutors. Best Evidence in Chinese Education, 11(2), 1477–1497. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.22.or063
Original Article