On This Page
Research Involving Human Participants, Their Data or Biological Material
Retrospective Ethics Approval
Ethics Approval for Case Studies
Research Resource Identifiers (RRID)
Standards of Reporting
Clinical Trial Registration
Research Involving Animals and Their Data
Research Involving Human Embryos, Gametes, and Stem Cells
Research involving Paleontological and Geological Material
Sex and Gender in Research (SAGER Guidelines)
Biosafety & Biosecurity
Utilization of Plants, Algae, and Fungi
Algal, Fungal, and Botanical Names
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication in Insights Publisher hosted journals. Interests within the last five years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 5-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, and so one possible practical guideline is the following: “Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published.”
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; etc.
In Insights Publisher hosted journals, all types of articles require a disclosure statement without any exception.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.
Editorial Board Members and Editors
Editorial Board Members and Editors are required to declare any competing interests and may be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists.
In addition, they should exclude themselves from handling manuscripts in cases where there is a competing interest. This may include – but is not limited to – having previously published with one or more of the authors, and sharing the same institution as one or more of the authors.
Where an Editor or Editorial Board Member is on the author list they must declare this in the competing interests section on the submitted manuscript. If they are an author or have any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another Editor or member of the Editorial Board will be assigned to assume responsibility for overseeing peer review. These submissions are subject to the exact same review process as any other manuscript.
Editorial Board Members are welcome to submit papers to the journal. These submissions are not given any priority over other manuscripts, and Editorial Board Member status has no bearing on editorial consideration.
All Insights Publisher journal editorial staff are required to declare to their employer any interests — financial or otherwise — that might influence, or be perceived to influence, their editorial practices. Failure to do so is a disciplinary offence. Insights Publisher has a strict policy of editorial independence in individual acceptance decisions and editorial standards of quality and significance should never be compromised. While some editors are financially incentivized to achieve journal growth, we are clear in our internal policies and individuals’ contracts or formal objectives that this should be achieved by ensuring submissions of sufficient quality and never by compromising editorial standards.
Any manuscript submitted to a journal hosted by Insights Publisher must be original and the manuscript, or substantial parts of it, must not be under consideration by any other journal. In any case where there is the potential for overlap or duplication we require that authors are transparent. Authors should declare any potentially overlapping publications on submission. Any overlapping publications should be cited. Any ‘In Press’ or unpublished manuscript cited, or relevant to the Editor’s and reviewers’ assessment of the manuscript, should be made available if requested by the Editor. Insights Publisher reserves the right to judge potentially overlapping or redundant publications on a case-by-case basis.
In general, the manuscript should not already have been formally published in any journal or in any other citable form. If justified and made clear upon submission, there are exceptions to this rule. Details of these exceptions follow below and are also summarized in table 1.
Insights Publisher is a member of CrossCheck’s plagiarism detection initiative and takes seriously all cases of publication misconduct. Any suspected cases of covert duplicate manuscript submission will be handled as outlined in the COPE guidelines and the Editor may contact the authors’ institution. Insights Publisher endorses the policies of the ICMJE in relation to overlapping publications.
Insights Publisher does not currently have a co-publication agreement with the Cochrane Library for its systematic reviews. So we will therefore only consider publishing novel Cochrane systematic reviews, or updated versions of articles in the Cochrane Library, if they provide substantial new information.
If transparent, and with prior agreement of the relevant journals and under the conditions specified in the ICMJE guidelines, co-publication in multiple journals will be considered at the Editor’s discretion.
Posting a manuscript on a preprint server or an author’s personal or institutional website does not constitute previous publication. We encourage self-archiving by authors of manuscripts accepted for publication in the journals.
INSIGHTS PUBLISHER will consider submissions containing material that has previously formed part of a PhD or other academic thesis including those that have been made publicly available according to the requirements of the institution awarding the qualification.
Authors should comply with the ICMJE guidelines and seek approval from the original publisher to check that they do not breach the copyright terms of the original publication and that the original publisher gives permission for publication of the translation under the Creative Commons Attribution License-NonCommercial 4.0.
At the Editor’s discretion, our journals will consider manuscripts that are substantially extended versions of articles that have previously been published in another peer-reviewed journal. In such cases the prior publication of an abridged version of the article would therefore not preclude publication, provided the new manuscript represents a substantially novel contribution to the scientific record. If applicable, the authors should seek approval from the original publisher before submitting the extended version of the manuscript.
Prior abstracts of up to 400 words and posters presented at, or published as part of, academic meetings do not preclude consideration for peer review of a full manuscript, as the full manuscript represents a formal advance to the citable scientific record. Published abstracts should be cited or acknowledged in the Acknowledgement. Authors should be aware that many conference proceedings exceed the allowable word limit and constitute a citable form.
Making scientific data sets publicly available before associated manuscripts are submitted will not preclude consideration by our journals. Insights Publisher encourages authors to share their raw data because an increasing number of research funding agencies require that their grant holders share the “raw data” research outputs, provided appropriate safeguards are in place to protect personal or sensitive information.
Authors of non-research articles, including reviews, commentaries and editorials, can include figures and tables that have been previously published in other journals provided they confirm on submission that permission has been obtained from the original publisher (if applicable) and cite the original article. Documentary evidence to support this permission must be made available to the submitted journal editor on request.
In order to avoid the potential for self-plagiarism, inadvertently or otherwise, authors agreeing to write commissioned articles should notify the Editor-in-Chief of any recent publications or invitations to write on a similar topic.
If authors have previously discussed or posted their own data in venues such as blogs, wikis, social networking websites, or online electronic lab notebooks, they are still able to submit their findings to our journals. However, given the rapidly evolving nature of these resources, where discussion of data or manuscripts posted to these venues has subsequently been incorporated into the manuscript, the Editor-in-Chief will make their own assessment as to whether there may be duplication in the submitted manuscript.
Journals of Insights Publisher do not accept any study protocols for publication. However, with regards of reducing the risk of non-publication of research findings and facilitates methodological discussion, Insights Publisher dose not consider prior publication of a study protocol anywhere else before submission of a manuscript reporting the results to our journals is not considered duplicate publication.
Posting of summary trial results in publicly accessible databases is not considered duplicate publication. Insights Publisher requires authors of manuscripts reporting trials to have registered their trial in a suitably accessible registry. In the United States, if your study included human beings who were involved in the comparison treatments or psychological interventions, submission of these types of results to ClinicalTrials.gov is a statutory requirement.
When reporting a study that involved human participants, authors should include a statement that confirms that the study was approved (or granted exemption) by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) and certify that the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. If doubt exists, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that an independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. If a study was granted exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript including the reasons for the exemption.
If a study has not been granted ethics committee approval prior to commencing, retrospective ethics approval usually cannot be obtained and it may not be possible to consider the manuscript for peer review. The decision on whether to proceed to peer review in such cases is at the Editor’s discretion.
Although retrospective studies are conducted on already available data (for which formal consent may not be needed or is difficult to obtain), ethics approval may be required dependent on the law and the national ethical guidelines of the country where the study was carried out or the data were analyzed. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their country.
Case reports require ethics approval. Most institutions will have specific policies on this subject. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their institution and seek ethics approval where needed. Authors should be aware to secure informed consent from the individual (or parent or guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable).
If human cells are used, authors must declare in the manuscript: what cell lines were used by describing the source of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained, whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what method. If cells were bought from a life science company the following need to be given in the manuscript: name of company (that provided the cells), cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells.
It is recommended that authors check the NCBI database for misidentification and contamination of human cell lines. This step will alert authors to possible problems with the cell line and may save considerable time and effort.
Further information is available from the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC).
Authors should include a statement that confirms that an institutional or independent ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) approved the study and that informed consent was obtained from the donor or next of kin.
Research Resource Identifiers (RRID) are persistent unique identifiers (effectively similar to a DOI) for research resources. Insights Publisher encourages authors to adopt RRIDs when reporting key biological resources (antibodies, cell lines, model organisms and tools) in their manuscripts.
Organism: Filip1tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi RRID:MMRRC_055641-UCD
Cell Line: RST307 cell line RRID:CVCL_C321
Antibody: Luciferase antibody DSHB Cat# LUC-3, RRID:AB_2722109
Plasmid: mRuby3 plasmid RRID:Addgene_104005
Software: ImageJ Version 1.2.4 RRID:SCR_003070
RRIDs are provided by the Resource Identification Portal. Many commonly used research resources already have designated RRIDs. The portal also provides authors links so that they can quickly register a new resource and obtain an RRID.
Insights Publisher advocates complete and transparent reporting of biomedical and biological research and research with biological applications. Authors are recommended to adhere to the minimum reporting guidelines hosted by the EQUATOR Network when preparing their manuscript.
Exact requirements may vary depending on the journal; please refer to the journal’s Instructions for Authors.
Checklists are available for a number of study designs, including:
Observational studies (STROBE)
Case reports (CARE)
Animal pre-clinical studies (ARRIVE)
Quality improvement studies (SQUIRE)
Economic evaluations (CHEERS)
The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes". The WHO defines health interventions as “A health intervention is an act performed for, with or on behalf of a person or population whose purpose is to assess, improve, maintain, promote or modify health, functioning or health conditions” and a health-related outcome is generally defined as a change in the health of a person or population as a result of an intervention.
To ensure the integrity of the reporting of patient-centered trials, authors must register prospective clinical trials (phase II to IV trials) in suitable publicly available repositories. For example www.clinicaltrials.gov or any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.
The trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.
For clinical trials that have not been registered prospectively, authors are encouraged to register retrospectively to ensure the complete publication of all results. The trial registration number (TRN), date of registration and the words ‘retrospectively registered’ should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.
Purely observational trials will not require registration.
Insights Publisher requires all experimental research on vertebrates or any regulated invertebrates must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. The Basel Declaration outlines fundamental principles to adhere to when conducting research in animals and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) has also published ethical guidelines.
A statement detailing compliance with relevant guidelines (e.g. the revised Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 in the UK and Directive 2010/63/EU in Europe) and/or ethical approval (including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number where appropriate) must be included in the manuscript. If a study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption and the reasons for the exemption). The Editor will take account of animal welfare issues and reserves the right to reject a manuscript, especially if the research involves protocols that are inconsistent with commonly accepted norms of animal research. In rare cases, the Editor may contact the ethics committee for further information.
Manuscripts presenting studies that have employed anesthesia or euthanasia methods inconsistent with the commonly accepted norms of veterinary best practice (e.g. chloral hydrate, ether, and chloroform) will not be considered. Decisions to not consider manuscripts presenting such anesthesia or euthanasia methods are independent of the approving ethics committee and any previously published work. We recommend that authors consult the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals (2020), as a comprehensive resource for guidance on veterinary best practice for the anesthesia and euthanasia of animals.
For experimental studies involving client-owned animals, authors must also document informed consent from the client or owner and adherence to a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care.
Field studies and other non-experimental research on animals must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. A statement detailing compliance with relevant guidelines and/or appropriate permissions or licenses must be included in the manuscript. We recommend that authors comply with the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
When reporting results authors should indicate:
… that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted. (Please provide the name of ethics committee and relevant permit number;… whether the legal requirements or guidelines in the country and/or state or province for the care and use of animals have been followed.)
Researchers from countries without any legal requirements or guidelines voluntarily should refer to the following sites for guidance:
Researchers may wish to consult the most recent (ethical) guidelines available from relevant taxon-oriented professional societies.
Even if a study was granted exemption or did not require ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript.
Manuscripts that report experiments involving the use of human embryos and gametes, human embryonic stem cells and related materials, and clinical applications of stem cells must include confirmation that all experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.
The manuscript should include an ethics statement identifying the institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) approving the experiments and describing any relevant details. Authors should confirm that informed consent was obtained from all recipients and/or donors of cells or tissues, where necessary, and describe the conditions of donation of materials for research, such as human embryos or gametes. Copies of approval and redacted consent documents may be requested by the Journal.
We encourage authors to follow the principles laid out in the 2016 ISSCR Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation.
In deciding whether to publish papers describing modifications of the human germline, all the journals from Insights Publisher are guided by safety considerations, compliance with applicable regulations, as well as the status of the societal debate on the implications of such modifications for future generations. The decision to publish a paper is the responsibility of the Editors-in-Chief of the journals.
Details of paleontological specimens and geological samples should include clear provenance information to ensure full transparency of the research.
It is recognized that precise provenance information may not be available for older museum collections. In circumstances where providing specific provenance information may compromise the security of paleontological or geological sites it may be appropriate to exclude detailed locality information.
Samples must always be collected and exported in a responsible manner and in accordance with applicable local and national laws. Any submission detailing new material should include information regarding the requisite permissions obtained and the issuing authority. Authors may be required to provide specific supporting documentation upon request.
Type, figured and cited paleontological specimens, should be deposited in a recognized museum or collection to permit free access by other researchers in perpetuity. Sufficient information on the repository, including the assigned unique catalogue numbers (where applicable), should be provided to allow the specimens to be traced.
Insights Publisher encourages deposition of 3D scans of fossil specimens where appropriate within a permanent, accessible repository to facilitate study by the scientific community.
Insights Publisher requires that the submitted content need to adheres to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) normative instruments for the protection of cultural heritage, and Resolutions, Motions, guidance and other statements of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Insights Publisher encourages the authors to follow the “Sex and Gender Equity in Research – SAGER – guidelines” and to include sex and gender considerations where relevant. Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) carefully in order to avoid confusing both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should indicate clearly what sex(es) the study applies to.
Definition of Sex and Gender (taken from Office of Research in Women’s Health, NIH).
Sex - refers to biological differences between females and males, including chromosomes, sex organs, and endogenous hormonal profiles.
Gender - refers to socially constructed and enacted roles and behaviors which occur in a historical and cultural context and vary across societies and over time.
Applications of the guidelines
These guidelines apply to studies involving humans, vertebrate animal and cell lines.
Insights Publisher encourages authors who submit research to our journals to be in compliance with relevant institutional biosafety and biosecurity protocols and any national or international recommendations relevant to the research field. The Editor may ask authors to provide details of how such risks have been mitigated and how it complies with their institutional and funder’s requirements, as well as any national regulations. Insights Publisher reserves the right to take expert advice in cases where we believe that concerns may arise and may require a manuscript to undergo peer review specifically to assess the dual use risk of any research. Thus, authors may be asked to revise their manuscript before normal journal peer-review.
The widespread view that openness in science helps to alert society to potential threats and to defend against them. Insights Publisher will follow a strict review protocol to check the risks be perceived as outweighing the benefits of publishing a paper that has otherwise been deemed appropriate for publication. Once a decision has been reached, authors will be informed if biosecurity advice has informed that decision.
No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. The grouping or consolidation of images from multiple sources must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure and in the figure legend. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and if they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds.
Questions about images raised during image screening will be referred to the editors, who may request the original data from the authors for comparison with the prepared figures. If the original data cannot be produced, the manuscript may be rejected. Cases of deliberate misrepresentation of data will result in rejection of the paper and will be reported to the corresponding author's home institution or funding agency. Authors must obtain consent for publication of figures with recognizable human faces.
Insights Publisher values stewardship, transparency, and adhering to governance with regards to collecting and utilizing specimens and conducting experiments and/or field studies. Therefor the journal sets out the following guidelines:
Field studies involving genetically engineered plants must be conducted in accordance with national or local legislation and, if applicable, the manuscript needs to include a statement specifying the appropriate permissions and/or licenses.
Authors utilizing genetic plant resources received via local suppliers/collectors, such as species collected from protected areas or endangered species with medical importance, must conduct their experiments following the Nagoya Protocol (as part of the Convention on Biological Diversity).
Authors whose research is focusing on quarantine organisms (i.e. harmful or pest organisms, including plant pathogens) should adhere to national legislation and notify the relevant National Plant Protection Organization of new findings before publication. More information can be found via the International Plant Protection Convention.
In principle, it is recommended that authors comply with:
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and consult the IUCN red list index of threatened species Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Voucher specimens ensure that the identity of organisms studied in the field or in laboratory experiments can be verified, and ensure that new species concepts can be applied to past research. Voucher specimens documenting all investigated accessions (for population samples at least one specimen per population) are to be deposited in a public herbarium, for example: Index Herbarium, or other public collection providing access to deposited material. Information on the voucher specimen and who identified it must be included in the manuscript such as Genus name, species name, author, and year of publication.
Manuscripts containing new taxon names or other nomenclatural acts must follow the guidelines set by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Authors describing new fungal taxa should register the names with a recognized repository, such as Mycobank, and request a unique digital identifier which should be included in the published article.
Manuscripts containing new taxon names or other nomenclatural acts must follow the guidelines set by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Insights Publisher requires the new taxon name and the article it is published in to be registered with ZooBank. The unique identifier provided by ZooBank should be included in the published article. Authors will be able to update ZooBank with the final citation following publication.
We comply with rules of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) for valid publication, authors must submit a copy of the published article in its final form, together with certificates of deposition of the type strain (for unrestricted distribution), in at least two internationally recognized, publicly accessible culture collections located in different countries, to the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM) editorial office. Following review by the List Editor, effectively published names that conform to all of the rules of the ICNP will appear on a subsequent Validation List, in the order received, thereby becoming validly published.
The proposal of new virus names must follow the guidelines established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature. Proposals for new virus taxa should be forwarded to the relevant Study Group of the ICTV for consideration.
Authors should notify Insights Publisher when a correction to a published article is needed through [email protected]. At the discretion of Insights Publisher, errors discovered after the publication of the article that do not substantively affect the scientific results, such as minor typographical mistakes that could affect meaning, may be corrected online without a formal Correction. A note regarding the post-publication update will be appended to the updated article.
For errors of a scientific nature that do not alter the overall results or conclusions of a published article, Insights Publisher will publish independent, citable corrections. Requests for these corrections will be sent to an editor for review to determine whether the errors warrant a Correction.
Articles may be retracted by their authors or by the editors because of pervasive error or unsubstantiated or irreproducible data. Articles may be retracted, for example, because of honest error, scientific misconduct, or plagiarism.
Name changes do not require a formal correction, unless specifically requested. See Name Changes for more information below.
Insights Publisher recognizes that people change their names for a variety of reasons (e.g., gender identity or change in marital status). An author, editor, or reviewer who wishes to change how their name appears on a published article should contact Insights Publisher through [email protected]. Insights Publisher will work on each request to ensure that the change is made quickly, accurately, and confidentially, if requested. Given/family names and initials will be updated in all versions of the article (online and PDF), as well as metadata records of the paper. No indication or notification of the change will be published unless a formal correction is requested. Once the change is made, only the new name will be associated with the paper. Insights Publisher will send the updated information to Crossref and other indexing databases, but cannot control changes in the downstream repositories or indexing services. Insights Publisher cannot update references (in text or reference list), only listed names of authors, reviewers, or editors in the byline.
Insights Publisher is a strong supporter of open access. All articles by Insights Publisher are free from the publication. Given the cost compensation from the Bonoi Academy of Science and Education (BASE), so our authors currently do not need to pay the article processing charge (APC). Open access articles are published and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) license for authors whose funders or institutions require it.
All work should be free of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism as defined by the US Office of Research Integrity. In cases of suspected or alleged misconduct, Insights Publisher follows the recommended procedures from COPE.
Insights Publisher uses software to screen manuscripts for potential text duplication. Insights Publisher will also evaluate issues with text, data, or figures that are brought to our direct attention and may request from the authors source data, descriptions of how experiments were performed, or explanations of how figures were prepared. Insights Publisher may discuss concerns with a member of the Editorial Board, the editor, or the authors.
Authors must place direct quotes or excerpts in quotation marks and must identify the original source reference(s). For overlapping passages that are not verbatim, authors must include the original source reference(s).