Published Oct 30, 2019

Rogers Leed  

Moore Smithson


As a new type of environmental pollutant, microplastics pose a serious threat to soil ecosystems. We reviewed the classification and source of soil microplastics, separation, detection methods and existing problems. The pollution of soil microplastics and the adsorption effect and mechanism of microplastics on pollutants are summarized. The effects on soil animals, microbial ecology and carbon, nitrogen and other material cycles were analyzed. Furthermore, the ecological effects of microplastics are proposed, which provides new ideas for the study of soil microplastics in the future.



Microplastics, Pollution; Adsorption, Soil Ecosystem

1. Law KL, Thompson RC. Oceans. Microplastics in the seas. Science 2014, 345(6193):144-145.

2. Rillig MC. Microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems and the soil? Environ Sci Technol 2012, 46(12):6453-6454.

3. Auta HS, Emenike C, Fauziah SH. Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions. Environ Int 2017.

4. Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review. Mar Pollut Bull 2011, 62(12):2588-2597.

5. Paço A, Duarte K, da Costa JP, Santos PSM, Pereira R, Pereira ME, Freitas AC, Duarte AC, Rocha-Santos TAP. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum. Sci Total Environ 2017, 586: 10-15.

6. Salvador Cesa F, Turra A, Baruque-Ramos J. Synthetic fibers as microplastics in the marine environment:A review from textile perspective with a focus on domestic washings. Sci Total Environ 2017, 598:1116-1129.

7. Santana MFM, Moreira FT, Turra A. Trophic transference of microplastics under a low exposure scenario: Insights on the likelihood of particle cascading along marine food-webs. Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 121(1/2): 154-159.

8. Wang J, Tan Z, Peng J, Qiu Q, Li M. The behaviors of microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Environ Res 2016, 113:7-17.

9. Zhang W, Zhang S, Wang J, Wang Y, Mu J, Wang P, Lin X, Ma D. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Bohai Sea, China. Environ Pollut 2017, 231:541-548.

10. Abayomi OA, Range P, Al-Ghouti MA, Obbard JP, Almeer SH, Ben-Hamadou R. Microplastics in coastal environments of the Arabian Gulf. Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 124(1):181-188.

11. Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A, Galloway T, Thompson R. Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: Sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol, 2011, 45(21):9175-9179.

12. Hinata H, Mori K, Ohno K, Miyao Y, Kataoka T. An estimation of the average residence times and onshore-offshore diffusivities of beached microplastics based on the population decay of tagged meso-and macrolitter. Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 122(1/2):17-26.

13. Ling SD, Sinclair M, Levi CJ, Reeves SE, Edgar GJ. Ubiquity of microplastics in coastal seafloor sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 121(1/2):104-110.

14. Massos A, Turner A. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics. Environ Pollut 2017, 227:139-145.

15. Mohamed Nor NH, Obbard JP. Microplastics in Singapore's coastal mangrove ecosystems. Mar Pollut Bullet 2014, 79(1/2):278-283.

16. Nel HA, Hean JW, Noundou XS, Froneman PW. Do microplastic loads reflect the population demographics along the southern African coastline? Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 115(1/2):115-119.

17. Qiu Q, Peng J, Yu X, Chen F, Wang J, Dong F. Occurrence of microplastics in the coastal marine environment:First observation on sediment of China. Mar Pollut Bull 2015, 98(1/2):274-280.

18. Yu X, Peng J, Wang J, Wang K, Bao S. Occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Chinese inner sea: The Bohai Sea. Environ Pollut 2016, 214:722-730.

19. Peng G, Zhu B, Yang D, Su L, Shi H, Li D. Microplastics in sediments of the Changjiang Estuary, China. Environ Pollut 2017, 225:283-290.

20. Vendel AL, Bessa F, Alves VEN, Amorim ALA, Patrício J, Palma ART. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures. Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 117(1/2):448-455.

21. Zhao SY, Zhu LX, Li DJ. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China. Environ Pollut 2015, 206:597-604.

22. Zhao S, Zhu L, Wang T, Li D. Suspended microplastics in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary System, China: First observations on occurrence, distribution. Mar Pollut Bull 2014, 86(1/2):562-568.

23. Anderson PJ, Warrack S, Langen V, Challis JK, Hanson ML, Rennie MD. Microplastic contamination in Lake Winnipeg, Canada. Environ Pollut 2017, 225:223-231.

24. Horton AA, Svendsen C, Williams RJ, Spurgeon DJ, Lahive E. Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK-Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification. Mar Pollut Bull 2017, 114(1): 218-226.

25. Horton AA, Walton A, Spurgeon DJ, Lahive E, Svendsen C. Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities. Sci Total Environ 2017, 586:127-141.

26. Leslie HA, Brandsma SH, van Velzen MJM, Vethaak AD. Microplastics en route:Field measurements in the Dutch river delta and Amsterdam canals, wastewater treatment plants, North Sea sediments and biota. Environ Int 2017, 101:133-142.

27. Nel HA, Dalu T, Wasserman RJ. Sinks and sources:Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system. Sci Total Environ 2018, 612:950-956.

28. Sruthy S, Ramasamy EV. Microplastic pollution in Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India: The first report of microplastics in lake and estuarine sediments in India. Environ Pollut 2017, 222:315-322.

29. Vaughan R, Turner SD, Rose NL. Microplastics in the sediments of a UK urban lake. Environ Poll 2017, 229:10-18.

30. Wang J, Peng J, Tan Z, Gao Y, Zhan Z, Chen Q, Cai L. Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone:Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals. Chemosphere 2017, 171:248-258.

31. Zhang K, Su J, Xiong X, Wu X, Wu C, Liu J. Microplastic pollution of lakeshore sediments from remote lakes in Tibet plateau, China. Environ Poll 2016, 219:450-455.

32. Holland ER, Mallory ML, Shutler D. Plastics and other anthropogenic debris in freshwater birds from Canada. Sci Total Environ 2016, 571:251-258.

33. Sanchez W, Bender C, Porcher JM. Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: Preliminary study and first evidence. Environ Res 2014, 128:98-100.

34. Wright SL, Thompson RC, Galloway TS. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms:A review. Environ Poll 2013, 178:483-492.

35. Beckingham B, Ghosh U. Differential bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls associated with environmental particles: Microplastic in comparison to wood, coal and biochar. Environ Poll 2017, 220: 150-158.

36. Hodson ME, Duffus-Hodson CA, Clark A, Prendergast-Miller MT, Thorpe KL. Plastic bag derived-microplastics as a vector for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates. Environ Sci Technol 2017, 51(8):4714-4721.

37. Huerta Lwanga E, Gertsen H, Gooren H, Peters P, Salánki T, van der Ploeg M, Besseling E, Koelmans AA, Geissen V. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris. Environ Poll 2017, 220:523-531.

38. Huerta Lwanga E, Gertsen H, Gooren H, Peters P, Salánki T, van der Ploeg M, Besseling E, Koelmans AA, Geissen V. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem:Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Environ Sci Technol 2016, 50(5):2685-2691.

39. Zubris K AV, Richards BK. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge. Environ Poll 2005, 138(2):201-211.

40. Nizzetto L, Futter M, Langaas S. Are agricultural soils dumps for microplastics of urban origin? Environ Sci Technol 2016, 50(20):10777-10779.

41. Ziajahromi S, Neale P A, Rintoul L, Leusch FD. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics:Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics. Water Res 2017, 112:93-99.

42. Roy PK, Hakkarainen M, Varma IK, Albertsson AC. Degradable polyethylene:Fantasy or reality. Environ Sci Technol 2011, 45(10):4217-4227.

43. Steinmetz Z, Wollmann C, Schaefer M, Buchmann C, David J, Tröger J, Muñoz K, Frör O, Schaumann GE. Plastic mulching in agriculture.Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation? Sci Total Environ 2016, 550:690-705.

44. Cao DD, Wang X, Luo XX, Liu G, Zheng H. Effects of polystyrene microplastics on the fitness of earthworms in an agricultural soil(C). IOP Conference Series: Earth Environ Sci 2017, 61:012148.

45. Maaß S, Daphi D, Lehmann A, Rillig MC. Transport of microplastics by two collembolan species. Environ Poll 2017, 225:456-459.

46. Blasing M, Amelung W. Plastics in soil:Analytical methods and possible sources. Sci Total Environ 2018, 612:422-435.

47. Kögel-Knaber KK, Amelung W. Dynamics, chemistry, and preservation of organic matter in soils(M). Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition, Oxford: Elsevier 2014, 157-215.

48. Lehmann J, Kleber M. The contentious nature of soil organic matter. Nature 2015, 528(7580):60-68.

49. Christensen BT. Carbon in primary and secondary organo-mineral complexes(M). Structure and Organic Matter Storage in Agricultural Soils, Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Boca raton, Florida, 1996:97-165.

50. Kaiser M, Asefaw Berhe A. How does sonication affect the mineral and organic constituents of soil aggregates? A review. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 2014, 177(4):479-495.

51. Hidalgo-Ruz V, Gutow L, Thompson RC, Thiel M. Microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environ Sci Technol 2012, 46(6):3060-3075.

52. Avio CG, Gorbi S, Regoli F. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea. Mar Environ Res 2015, 111:18-26.

53. Dehaut A, Cassone AL, Frère L, Hermabessiere L, Himber C, Rinnert E, Rivière G, Lambert C, Soudant P, Huvet A, Duflos G, Paul-Pont I. Microplastics in seafood:Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization. Environ Poll 2016, 215:223-233.

54. Cole M, Webb H, Lindeque P K, Fileman ES, Halsband C, Galloway TS. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms. Sci Rep 2015, 4:4528.

55. Mintenig SM, Int-Veen I, Löder MGJ, Primpke S, Gerdts G. Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Water Res 2017 108: 365-372.

56. Nuelle M-T, Dekiff J H, Remy D, Fries E. A new analytical approach for monitoring microplastics in marine sediments. Environ Poll 2014, 184:161-169.

57. Fuller S, Gautam A. A Procedure for measuring microplastics using pressurized fluid extraction. Environ Sci Technol 2016, 50(11):5774-5780.

58. Löder M G J, Gerdts G. Methodology used for the detection and identification of microplastics: A critical appraisal(M)//Bergmann M, Gutow L, Klages M. Marine Anthropogenic Litter, Springer, Cham, 2015:201-227.

59. Vianelloa A., Boldrinb A., Guerrieroc P., Moschinob V., Rellaa R., Sturaroa A., Da Ros L. Microplastic particles in sediments of Lagoon of Venice, Italy: First observations on occurrence, spatial patterns and identification. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2013, 130:54-61.

60. Corcoran P L, Biesinger M C, Grifi M. Plastics and beaches:A degrading relationship. Mar Poll Bull 2009, 58(1):80-84.

61. Van Cauwenberghe L, Vanreusel A, Mees J, Janssen CR. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Environ Poll 2013, 182: 495-499.

62. von Sperber C, Lewandowski H, Tamburini F, Bernasconi SM, Amelung W, Frossard E. Kinetics of enzyme-catalysed oxygen isotope exchange between phosphate and water revealed by Raman spectroscopy: Kinetics of enzyme-catalysed oxygen isotope exchange. J Raman Spectroscop, 2017, 48(3): 368-373.

63. Qiu Q X, Tan Z, Wang J D, Peng J, Li M, Zhan Z. Extraction, enumeration and identification methods for monitoring microplastics in the environment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci, 2016, 176:102-109.

64. Löder MGJ, Kuczera M, Mintenig S, Lorenz C, Gerdts G. Focal plane array detector-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging for the analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. Environ Chem 2015, 12(5):563-581.

65. Rocha-Santos T, Duarte AC. A critical overview of the analytical approaches to the occurrence, the fate and the behavior of microplastics in the environment. Trend Anal Chem 2015, 65:47-53.

66. Dümichen E, Barthel AK, Braun U, Bannick CG, Brand K, Jekel M, Senz R. Analysis of polyethylene microplastics in environmental samples, using a thermal decomposition method. Water Res 2015, 85:451-457.

67. Dümichen E, Eisentraut P, Bannick CG, Barthel AK, Senz R, Braun U. Fast identification of microplastics in complex environmental samples by a thermal degradation method. Chemosphere 2017, 174:572-584.

68. Zubris KAV, Richards BK. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge. Environ Poll 2005, 138(2):201-211.

69. Barnes DK, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2009, 364(1526):1985-1998.

70. Hohenblum P, Liebmann B, Liedermann M. Austrian federal ministry of agriculture, forestry, environment and water management, plastic and microplastic in the environment(R). Vienna: Umweltbundesamt GmbH, 2015.

71. Steinmetz Z, Wollmann C, Schaefer M, Buchmann C, David J, Tröger J, Muñoz K, Frör O, Schaumann GE. Plastic mulching in agriculture.Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation? Sci Total Environ 2016, 550:690-705.

72. Kasirajan S, Ngouajio M. Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural applications: A review. Agron Sustain Dev 2012, 32(2):501-529.

73. Teuten EL, Saquing JM, Knappe DRU, Barlaz MA, Jonsson S, Björn A, Rowland SJ, Thompson RC, Galloway TS, Yamashita R, Ochi D, Watanuki Y, Moore C, Viet PH, Tana TS, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Zakaria MP, Akkhavong K, Ogata Y, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Mizukawa K, Hagino Y, Imamura A, Saha M, Takada H. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2009, 364(1526):2027-2045.

74. Xu SY, Zhang H, He PJ, He PJ, Shao LM.. Leaching behaviour of bisphenol A from municipal solid waste under landfill environment. Environ Technol 2011, 32(11):1269-1277.

75. Rochman CM, Manzano C, Hentschel BT, Simonich SLM, Hoh E. Polystyrene plastic: A source and sink for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 2013, 47(24):13976-13984.

76. Erkekoglu P, Kocer-Gumusel B. Genotoxicity of phthalates. Toxicol Mech Meth 2014, 24(9):616-626.

77. Wang J, Lv S, Zhang M, Chen G, Zhu T, Zhang S, Teng Y, Christie P, Luo Y. Effects of plastic film residues on occurrence of phthalates and microbial activity in soils. Chemosphere 2016, 151:171-177.

78. Sun J Q, Wu X Q, Gan J. Uptake and metabolism of phthalate esters by edible plants. Environ Sci Technol 2015, 49(14):8471-8478.

79. Cai Q Y, Mo C H, Wu Q T, Katsoyiannis A, Zeng QY. The status of soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China: A review. Sci Total Environ 2008, 389(2/3):209-224.

80. Gómez-Hens A, Aguilar-Caballos M. Social and economic interest in the control of phthalic acid esters. Trend Anal Chem 2003, 22(11):847-857.

81. van Wezel A P, van Vlaardingen P, Posthumus R, Crommentuijn GH, Sijm DT. Environmental risk limits for two phthalates, with special emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2000, 46(3):305-321.

82. Xia X, Yang L, Bu Q, Liu R. Levels, distribution, and health risk of phthalate esters in urban soils of Beijing, China. J Environ Qual 2011, 40(5):1643-1651.

83. Kong S, Ji Y, Liu L, Chen L, Zhao X, Wang J, Bai Z, Sun Z. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China. Environ Poll 2012, 170:161-168.

84. Wang J, Luo Y, Teng Y, Ma W, Christie P, Li Z. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film. Environ Poll 2013, 180:265-273.

85. Besseling E, Wegner A, Foekema EM, van den Heuvel-Greve MJ, Koelmans AA. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.). Environ Sci Technol 2013, 47(1): 593-600.

86. Agnello AC, Bagard M, van Hullebusch ED, Esposito G, Huguenot D. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation. Sci Total Environ 2016, 563/564:693-703.

87. Chandra S, Sharma R, Singh K, Sharma A. Application of bioremediation technology in the environment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon. Ann Microbiol 2013, 63(2):417-431.

88. Chen F, Tan M, Ma J, Zhang S, Li G, Qu J. Efficient remediation of PAH-metal co-contaminated soil using microbial-plant combination: A greenhouse study. J Hazard Mater 2016, 302: 250-261.

89. Ding C, Chang W-J, Zeng H, et al. Field and modeling study of PBDEs uptake by three tree species. Sci Total Environ 2014, 472: 923-928.

90. Fan G, Cang L, Fang G, Qin W, Ge L, Zhou D. Electrokinetic delivery of persulfate to remediate PCBs polluted soils:Effect of injection spot. Chemosphere 2014, 117:410-418.

91. Robertson SJ, McGill WB, Massicotte HB, Rutherford PM. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in boreal forest soils:A mycorrhizal ecosystems perspective. Biol Rev 2007, 82(2):213-240.

92. Sun TR, Cang L, Wang QY, Zhou DM, Cheng JM, Xu H. Roles of abiotic losses, microbes, plant roots, and root exudates on phytoremediation of PAHs in a barren soil. J Hazard Mater 2010, 176(1/2/3):919-925.

93. Teuten EL, Rowland SJ, Galloway TS, Thompson RC. Potential for plastics to transport hydrophobic contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 2007, 41(22):7759-7764.

94. Andrady AL. The plastic in microplastics: A review. Mar Poll Bull 2017, 119(1):12-22.

95. Ivar do Sul JA, Costa MF. The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment. Environ Poll 2014, 185:352-364.

96. Velzeboer I, Kwadijk CJAF, Koelmans AA. Strong sorption of PCBs to nanoplastics, microplastics, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes. Environ Sci Technol 2014, 48(9):4869-4876.

97. Rochman CM, Manzano C, Hentschel BT, Simonich SL, Hoh E. Polystyrene plastic:A source and sink for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 2013, 47(24):13976-13984.

98. Pascall MA, Zabik ME, Zabik MJ, Hernandez RJ. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) from an aqueous medium by polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene films. J Agric Food Chem 2005, 53(1):164-169.

99. Ashton K, Holmes L, Turner A. Association of metals with plastic production pellets in the marine environment. Mar Poll Bull 2010, 60(11):2050-2055.

100. Kim D, Chae Y, An Y-J. Mixture toxicity of nickel and microplastics with different functional groups on Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Technol 2017, 51(21):12852-12858.

101. Hodson ME, Duffus-Hodson CA, Clark A, Prendergast-Miller MT, Thorpe KL.. Plastic bag derived-microplastics as a vector for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates. Environ Sci Technol 2017, 51(8):4714-4721.

102. Holmes LA, Turner A, Thompson RC. Adsorption of trace metals to plastic resin pellets in the marine environment. Environ Poll 2012, 160:42-48.

103. Holmes LA, Turner A, Thompson RC. Interactions between trace metals and plastic production pellets under estuarine conditions. Mar Chem 2014, 167:25-32.

104. Syberg K, Khan F R, Selck H, Palmqvist A, Banta GT, Daley J, Sano L, Duhaime MB. Microplastics:addressing ecological risk through lessons learned:Microplastics ecological risk. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015, 34(5):945-953.

105. Foulon V, Le Roux F, Lambert C, Huvet A, Soudant P, Paul-Pont I. Colonization of polystyrene microparticles by Vibrio crassostreae? Light and electron microscopic investigation. Environ Sci Technol 2016, 50(20):10988-10996.

106. Rodriguez-Seijo A, Lourenço J, Rocha-Santos TAP, da Costa J, Duarte AC, Vala H, Pereira R. Histopathological and molecular effects of microplastics in Eisenia andrei Bouché. Environ Poll 2017, 220:495-503.

107. Rillig MC, Ziersch L, Hempel S. Microplastic transport in soil by earthworms. Sci Rep 2017, 7(1):1362-1368.

108. Kiyama Y, Miyahara K, Ohshima Y. Active uptake of artificial particles in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Exp Biol 2012, 215(7):1178-1183.

109. von Moos N, Burkhardt-Holm P, Köhler A. Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L.after an experimental exposure. Environ Sci Technol 2012, 46(20):11327-11335.

110. Wright SL, Thompson RC, Galloway TS. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review. Environ Poll 2013, 178: 483-492.

111. Besseling E, Wang B, Lürling M, Koelmans AA. Nanoplastic affects growth of S.obliquus and reproduction of D.magna. Environ Sci Technol 2014, 48(20):12336-12343.

112. Lee K W, Shim WJ, Kwon OY, Kang JH.. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Environ Sci Technol 2013, 47(19):11278-11283.

113. Nasser F, Lynch I. Secreted protein eco-corona mediates uptake and impacts of polystyrene nanoparticles on Daphnia magna. J Proteom 2016, 137:45-51.

114. Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS, Lowe DM, Thompson RC. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Environ Sci Technol 2008, 42(13): 5026-5031.

115. Farrell P, Nelson K. Trophic level transfer of microplastic:Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.). Environ Poll 2013, 177(Suppl C):1-3.

116. Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS. Organophosphorous biocides reduce tenacity and cellular viability but not esterase activities in a non-target prosobranch (limpet). Environ Pollut 2015; 203:208-213.

117. Wegner A, Besseling E, Foekema E, Kamermans P, Koelmans AA. Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.). Environ Toxicol Chem 2012, 31(11):2490-2497.

118. Mamaca E, Bechmann R K, Torgrimsen S, Aas E, Bjørnstad A, Baussant T, Floch SL. The neutral red lysosomal retention assay and comet assay on haemolymph cells from mussels(Mytilus edulis) and fish(Symphodus melops) exposed to styrene. Aquat Toxicol 2005, 75(3):191-201.

119. Van Cauwenberghe L, Janssen C R. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption. Environ Poll 2014, 193:65-70.

120. Watts AJ, Lewis C, Goodhead RM, Beckett SJ, Moger J, Tyler CR, Galloway TS. Uptake and retention of microplastics by the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Environ Sci Technol 2014, 48(15):8823-8830.

121. Schultz C, Powell K, Crossley A, Jurkschat K, Kille P, Morgan AJ, Read D, Tyne W, Lahive E, Svendsen C, Spurgeon DJ. Analytical approaches to support current understanding of exposure, uptake and distributions of engineered nanoparticles by aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Ecotoxicology 2015, 24(2):239-261.

122. Harrison J P, Schratzberger M, Sapp M, Osborn AM. Rapid bacterial colonization of low-density polyethylene microplastics in coastal sediment microcosms. BMC Microbiol 2014, 14:232.

123. Lemire A, Goudenège D, Versigny T, Petton B, Calteau A, Labreuche Y, Le Roux F. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters. ISME J 2015, 9(7):1523-1531.

124. Liu H, Yang X, Liu G, Liang C, Xue S, Chen H, Ritsema CJ, Geissen V. Response of soil dissolved organic matter to microplastic addition in Chinese loess soil. Chemosphere 2017, 185:907-917.

125. Arthur E, Moldrup P, Holmstrup M, Schjønning P, Winding A, Mayer P, de Jongea LW. Soil microbial and physical properties and their relations along a steep copper gradient. Agric Ecosys Environ 2012, 159:9-18.

126. Naveed M, Herath L, Moldrup P, Arthur E, Nicolaisen M, Norgaard T, Ferré TPA, de Jonge LW. Spatial variability of microbial richness and diversity and relationships with soil organic carbon, texture and structure across an agricultural field. App Soil Ecol 2016, 103:44-55.

127. Burns R G, DeForest JL, Marxsen J, Sinsabaugh RL, Stromberger ME, Wallenstein MD, Weintraub MN, Zoppini A. Soil enzymes in a changing environment: Current knowledge and future directions. Soil Biol Biochem 2013, 58:216-234.

128. Auta HS, Emenike CU, Fauziah SH. Screening of Bacillus strains isolated from mangrove ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia for microplastic degradation. Environ Poll 2017, 231:1552-1559.

129. Edwards W M, Shipitalo M, Owens L, Norton LD. Effect of Lumbricus terrestris L.burrows on hydrology of continuous no-till corn fields. Geoderma 1990, 46(1):73-84.

130. Edwards WM, Shipitalo M, Traina SJ. Role of Lumbricus terrestris(L.) burrows on quality of infiltrating water. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 1992, 24(12):1555-1561.

131. Iribarne O, Botto F. The role of burrows of the SW atlantic intertidal crab Chasmagnathus granulata in trapping debris. Mar Poll Bull 2000, 40(11):1057-1062.

132. Hopkin SP. A key to the collembola(springtails) of Britain and Ireland(M). Field Studies Council, Taunton, Shrewsbury: FSC, 2007, 111.

133. Widenfalk L A, Bengtsson J, Berggren Å, Zwiggelaar K, Spijkman E, Huyer-Brugman F, Berg MP. Spatially structured environmental filtering of collembolan traits in late successional salt marsh vegetation. Oecologia 2015, 179(2):537-549.

134. Rillig M C, Ziersch L, Hempel S. Microplastic transport in soil by earthworms. Sci Rep 2017, 7(1):1362-1368.

135. Athmann M, Kautz T, Banfield C, Bauke S, Hoang DTT, Lüsebrink M, Pausch J, Amelung W, Kuzyakov Y, Köpke U. Six months of L.terrestris L.activity in root-formed biopores increases nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activity. App Soil Ecol 2017, 120:135-142.
How to Cite
Leed, R., & Smithson, M. (2019). Ecological Effects of Soil Microplastic Pollution. Science Insights, 30(3), 70–84. https://doi.org/10.15354/si.19.re102