Published May 26, 2024

Viola Dudás  


Fall prevention is a crucial component of healthcare, particularly for older adults and individuals with specific medical conditions. Understanding the significance of fall prevention and recognizing the various risk factors associated with falls are essential in developing effective strategies to mitigate this public health concern. This comprehensive review aims to explore the multidimensional aspects of fall prevention, from assessing individual fall risks to implementing interventions and evaluating the efficacy of fall prevention programs. By delving into the latest trends, innovative technologies, and collaborative approaches in fall prevention, this article seeks to provide valuable insights for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and policymakers in enhancing the safety and well-being of individuals at risk of falls.



Falls, Risk Factors, Assessment and Prevention, Medical Intervention, Outcomes

1. Alshammari SA, Alhassan AM, Aldawsari MA, Bazuhair FO, Alotaibi FK, Aldakhil AA, Abdulfattah FW. Falls among elderly and its relation with their health problems and surrounding environmental factors in Riyadh. J Family Community Med 2018; 25(1):29-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_48_17

2. Currie L. Fall and Injury Prevention. In: Hughes RG, editor. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Apr. Chapter 10. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2653/

3. Schoene D, Heller C, Aung YN, Sieber CC, Kemmler W, Freiberger E. A systematic review on the influence of fear of falling on quality of life in older people: Is there a role for falls? Clin Interv Aging 2019; 14:701-719. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S197857

4. Kendrick D, Kumar A, Carpenter H, Zijlstra GA, Skelton DA, Cook JR, Stevens Z, Belcher CM, Haworth D, Gawler SJ, Gage H, Masud T, Bowling A, Pearl M, Morris RW, Iliffe S, Delbaere K. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 2014(11):CD009848. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009848.pub2

5. Florence CS, Bergen G, Atherly A, Burns E, Stevens J, Drake C. Medical costs of fatal and nonfatal falls in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2018; 66(4):693-698. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15304

6. Klatt BN, Carender WJ, Lin CC, Alsubaie SF, Kinnaird CR, Sienko KH, Whitney SL. A conceptual framework for the progression of balance exercises in persons with balance and vestibular disorders. Phys Med Rehabil Int 2015; 2(4):1044.

7. Luebbert S, Christensen W, Finkel C, Worsowicz G. Falls in senior adults: Demographics, cost, risk stratification, and evaluation. Mo Med 2022; 119(2):158-163.

8. Gale CR, Cooper C, Aihie Sayer A. Prevalence and risk factors for falls in older men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age Ageing 2016; 45(6):789-794. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afw129

9. Greenberg MR, Moore EC, Nguyen MC, Stello B, Goldberg A, Barraco RD, Porter BG, Kurt A, Dusza SW, Kane BG. Perceived fall risk and functional decline: gender differences in patient’s willingness to discuss fall risk, fall history, or to have a home safety evaluation. Yale J Biol Med 2016; 89(2):261-267.

10. Llompart-Pou JA, Pérez-Bárcena J, Chico-Fernández M, Sánchez-Casado M, Raurich JM. Severe trauma in the geriatric population. World J Crit Care Med 2017; 6(2):99-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5492/wjccm.v6.i2.99

11. Rodrigues F, Domingos C, Monteiro D, Morouço P. A review on aging, sarcopenia, falls, and resistance training in community-dwelling older adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022; 19(2):874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020874

12. Granacher U, Gollhofer A, Hortobágyi T, Kressig RW, Muehlbauer T. The importance of trunk muscle strength for balance, functional performance, and fall prevention in seniors: A systematic review. Sports Med 2013; 43(7):627-641. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0041-1

13. Henry M, Baudry S. Age-related changes in leg proprioception: Implications for postural control. J Neurophysiol 2019; 122(2):525-538. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00067.2019

14. Fischer BL, Gleason CE, Gangnon RE, Janczewski J, Shea T, Mahoney JE. Declining cognition and falls: Role of risky performance of everyday mobility activities. Phys Ther 2014; 94(3):355-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20130195

15. Dionyssiotis Y. Analyzing the problem of falls among older people. Int J Gen Med 2012; 5:805-813. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S32651

16. Giovannini S, Brau F, Galluzzo V, Santagada DA, Loreti C, Biscotti L, Laudisio A, Zuccalà G, Bernabei R. Falls among older adults: Screening, identification, rehabilitation, and management. Appl Sci 2022; 12(15):7934. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157934

17. Zhou S, Jia B, Kong J, Zhang X, Lei L, Tao Z, Ma L, Xiang Q, Zhou Y, Cui Y. Drug-induced fall risk in older patients: A pharmacovigilance study of FDA adverse event reporting system database. Front Pharmacol 2022; 13:1044744. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.1044744

18. Singh S, Foster R, Khan KM. Accident or osteoporosis? Survey of community follow-up after low-trauma fracture. Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(4):e128-e133.

19. Crews RT, Yalla SV, Fleischer AE, Wu SC. A growing troubling triad: Diabetes, aging, and falls. J Aging Res 2013; 2013:342650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/342650

20. Riazi A, Riazi F, Yoosfi R, Bahmeei F. Outdoor difficulties experienced by a group of visually impaired Iranian people. J Curr Ophthalmol 2016; 28(2):85-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joco.2016.04.002

21. Fernando E, Fraser M, Hendriksen J, Kim CH, Muir-Hunter SW. Risk factors associated with falls in older adults with dementia: A systematic review. Physiother Can 2017; 69(2):161-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2016-14

22. Rico CLV, Curcio CL. Fear of falling and environmental factors: A scoping review. Ann Geriatr Med Res 2022; 26(2):83-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4235/agmr.22.0016

23. Institute of Medicine (US) Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention; Berg RL, Cassells JS, editors. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1992. 15, Falls in Older Persons: Risk Factors and Prevention. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK235613/

24. Bolton L. Preventing Fall Injury. Wounds 2019; 31(10):269-271.

25. Appeadu MK, Bordoni B. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults. [Updated 2023 Jun 4]. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560761/

26. Krogstad JR, Hjorthol R, Tennøy A. Improving walking conditions for older adults. A three-step method investigation. Eur J Ageing 2015; 12(3):249-260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-015-0340-5

27. Strini V, Schiavolin R, Prendin A. Fall risk assessment scales: A systematic literature review. Nurs Rep. 2021; 11(2):430-443. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep11020041

28. Wang L, Xue Z, Ezeana CF, Puppala M, Chen S, Danforth RL, Yu X, He T, Vassallo ML, Wong STC. Preventing inpatient falls with injuries using integrative machine learning prediction: A cohort study. NPJ Digit Med 2019; 2:127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-019-0200-3

29. Lima CA, Ricci NA, Nogueira EC, Perracini MR. The Berg Balance Scale as a clinical screening tool to predict fall risk in older adults: A systematic review. Physiotherapy 2018; 104(4):383-394. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2018.02.002

30. Ott LD. The impact of implementing a fall prevention educational session for community-dwelling physical therapy patients. Nurs Open 2018; 5(4):567-574. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.165

31. Baumann I, Wieber F, Volken T, Rüesch P, Glässel A. Interprofessional collaboration in fall prevention: Insights from a qualitative study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022; 19(17):10477. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710477

32. Liu-Ambrose T, Khan KM, Eng JJ, Janssen PA, Lord SR, McKay HA. Resistance and agility training reduce fall risk in women aged 75 to 85 with low bone mass: A 6-month randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52(5):657-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52200.x

33. Aleixo P, Abrantes J. Proprioceptive and strength exercise guidelines to prevent falls in the elderly related to biomechanical movement characteristics. Healthcare (Basel) 2024; 12(2):186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12020186

34. Vincenzo JL, Hergott C, Schrodt L, Perera S, Tripken J, Shubert TE, Brach JS. Physical therapists as partners for community fall risk screenings and referrals to community programs. Front Public Health 2021; 9:672366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.672366

35. Booth FW, Roberts CK, Laye MJ. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Compr Physiol 2012; 2(2):1143-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c110025

36. Blanchet R, Edwards N. A need to improve the assessment of environmental hazards for falls on stairs and in bathrooms: Results of a scoping review. BMC Geriatr 2018; 18(1):272. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-018-0958-1

37. Delahoz YS, Labrador MA. Survey on fall detection and fall prevention using wearable and external sensors. Sensors (Basel) 2014; 14(10):19806-19842. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019806

38. Newaz NT, Hanada E. The methods of fall detection: A literature review. Sensors (Basel) 2023; 23(11):5212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23115212

39. Subramaniam S, Faisal AI, Deen MJ. Wearable sensor systems for fall risk assessment: A review. Front Digit Health 2022; 4:921506. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fdgth.2022.921506

40. Pech M, Sauzeon H, Yebda T, Benois-Pineau J, Amieva H. Falls detection and prevention systems in home care for older adults: Myth or reality? JMIR Aging 2021; 4(4):e29744. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/29744

41. Moore K, O’Shea E, Kenny L, Barton J, Tedesco S, Sica M, Crowe C, Alamäki A, Condell J, Nordström A, Timmons S. Older adults’ experiences with using wearable devices: Qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021; 9(6):e23832. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/23832

42. Warrington DJ, Shortis EJ, Whittaker PJ. Are wearable devices effective for preventing and detecting falls: An umbrella review (a review of systematic reviews). BMC Public Health 2021; 21(1):2091. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12169-7

43. Oh-Park M, Doan T, Dohle C, Vermiglio-Kohn V, Abdou A. Technology utilization in fall prevention. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021; 100(1):92-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001554

44. Torres-Guzman RA, Paulson MR, Avila FR, Maita K, Garcia JP, Forte AJ, Maniaci MJ. Smartphones and threshold-based monitoring methods effectively detect falls remotely: A systematic review. Sensors (Basel) 2023; 23(3):1323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031323

45. Vitak J, Shilton K, editors. Trust, Privacy and Security, and Accessibility Considerations When Conducting Mobile Technologies Research with Older Adults. In: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. Mobile Technology for Adaptive Aging: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2020 Sep 25. 1. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563116/

46. Montejano-Lozoya R, Miguel-Montoya I, Gea-Caballero V, Mármol-López MI, Ruíz-Hontangas A, Ortí-Lucas R. Impact of nurses’ intervention in the prevention of falls in hospitalized patients. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(17):6048. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176048

47. Lu L, Zhang J, Xie Y, Gao F, Xu S, Wu X, Ye Z. Wearable health devices in health care: Narrative systematic review. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020; 8(11):e18907. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/18907

48. Chen J, Wang Y. Social media use for health purposes: Systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2021; 23(5):e17917. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/17917

49. Soh SL, Tan CW, Thomas JI, Tan G, Xu T, Ng YL, Lane J. Falls efficacy: Extending the understanding of self-efficacy in older adults towards managing falls. J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls 2021; 6(3):131-138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22540/JFSF-06-131

50. Hawkins M, Goldhammer T, McClave R, Jenkins-Smith E. Evaluation of a fall prevention program to reduce fall risk and fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults and adults with disabilities. Clin Interv Aging 2024; 19:375-383. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S448196

51. Meekes WM, Korevaar JC, Leemrijse CJ, van de Goor IA. Practical and validated tool to assess falls risk in the primary care setting: A systematic review. BMJ Open 2021; 11(9):e045431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045431

52. Frick KD, Kung JY, Parrish JM, Narrett MJ. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention programs that reduce fall-related hip fractures in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010; 58(1):136-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02575.x

53. Seppala LJ, van der Velde N. How to tackle the global challenge of falls? Age Ageing 2022; 51(11):afac264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afac264

54. Ayton DR, Barker AL, Morello RT, Brand CA, Talevski J, Landgren FS, Melhem MM, Bian E, Brauer SG, Hill KD, Livingston PM, Botti M. Barriers and enablers to the implementation of the 6-PACK falls prevention program: A pre-implementation study in hospitals participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial. PLoS One 2017; 12(2):e0171932. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171932

55. Kafantogia K, Katsafourou P, Tassiou A, Vassou N. Falls among hospitalized patients. J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls 2017; 2(3):53-57.
How to Cite
Dudás, V. (2024). A Comprehensive Analysis of Fall Risk and Prevention. Science Insights, 44(5), 1365–1373. https://doi.org/10.15354/si.24.re1002