Published Jun 29, 2024

Hong Liu  


The increasing prevalence of grandparenting has drawn attention to the effects of this alternative childcare arrangement on children’s growth. For Chinese migrant worker families, grandparents are the primary caregivers for the left-behind children. This article examines the factors that contribute to the dominance of grandparenting in these families, highlighting the challenges faced by rural left-behind children.



Grandparenting, Migrant Worker, Rural Left-Behind Children, China

1. Baumrind D. Parental Disciplinary Patterns and Social Competence in Children. Youth Soc 1978; 9(3):239-267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X7800900302

2. Hank K, Buber I. Grandparents caring for their grandchildren: Findings from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. J Fam Issues 2009; 30(1):53-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X08322627

3. Guzman L. The use of grandparents as childcare providers. Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin--Madison. 1999. Available at: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/nsfhwp/nsfh84.pdf

4. Xu X. Ethical Contemplations on Grandparenting in China (master’s thesis). Hunan University of Technology. 2018. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=2R7H8JGA7Ew1-V2OHaZfvCkxiR4fe5m1EpfcWhl9Ne7ARuKC0aNB4-VS05ODXhQMd2CUH8sU8xShhamXUFeiisKDWIOPFRsyMvAC-MJl0MQF0Gd

5. Lin Y, Yao, Y. The Miracle of China: Review and Outlook. Beijing: Peking University Press. 2006.

6. National Bureau of Statistics of China, UNICEF, UNFPA. What the 2020 Census Can Tell Us About Children in China: Facts and Figures. 2023. Available at: https://www.stats.gov.cn/zs/tjwh/tjkw/tjzl/202304/P020230419425666818737.pdf

7. Li Y. The Coupling of Basic Education to the Permanent Household Residence System and Its Impact (doctoral dissertation). Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. 2023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.27296/d.cnki.gshcu.2023.000063

8. State Council of China. Implementation Rules of the Compulsory Education Law of China. People’s Education 1992; 1992(5):2-5. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=a2GKbg6fW_YogJJFS7b5Go0196Yv8Ugg3qRqlNmAMMd9xeHXuP__WNFLVYBcV0onmo6u2-MYr1tS1WZgZHeFYmoSxnPzEzknoBoPLB5XVI9tpkFPx4e5gQ56FkRoqOTg&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS

9. Fu Y. Ensuring the Right to Education of Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas under the Background of Rural Revitalization (master’s thesis). Jilin University. 2023. Available at: https://link.cnki.net/doi/10.27162/d.cnki.gjlin.2023.001602

10. Pan, X. A Practical Investigation of the Impact of Group Work Intervention on the Improvement of Peer Communication Ability of Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas (master’s thesis). Guizhou Minzu University. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.27807/d.cnki.cgzmz.2022.000170

11. Song W. The impact of grandparenting on the socialization of young children and coping strategies. People Trib 2014; 2014(8):165-167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16619/j.cnki. rmlt.2014.08.054

12. Zhang C. Group Work Intervention in Anti-Abduction Education for Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas (master’s thesis). Changchun University of Technology. 2023. Available at: https://link.cnki.net/doi/10.27805/d.cnki.gccgy.2023.000529

13. Zhang B, Han B. Psychological health of grandparents as childcare providers and influencing factors. Chinese General Practice 2016;2016(07):835-841. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=a2GKbg6fW_aOCtm5BlFTy4BrUGINI-84rNJNdzEvSqLv9npUKTcjkWLBdJLEJhwxoK9rBDLKEYGvAp3VwDgAXv:07TdvUlggIl5wVYKnJ4ZRfx9pw_6tATlHoLSJYXfKN6s1kdP44=&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS

14. Ou Y, Fan X. The impact of family socioeconomic status and psychological capital on the self-esteem of left-behind children in rural areas. Chin J Clin Psychol 2018; 2018(6):1182-1185+1190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16128/j.cnki.1005-3611.2018.06.028

15. Li J, Lin Y. A typological study of intergenerational relationships in families with co-residing grandparents: A case study of Xiamen City. J South Chin Univ Technol (Soc Sci Ed) 2023; 2023(6):139-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19366/j.cnki.1009-055X.2023.06.014

16. Zhou S. Social Work Intervention in the Cultivation of Reading Habits in Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas (master’s thesis). Yunnan University of Finance and Economics. 2023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.27455/d.cnki.gycmc.2023.000518

17. Zhao P. The Involvement of Schools in the Safety Protection of Left-Behind Children (master’s thesis). Southwest University. 2017. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=a2GKbg6fW_bgMb9LhqcC3Ilc_NJ9ToJpAZdmuSsngGHOTCI-VvINpdN02m5fnhnABAcGyLuK3LW08R3wTQFj74hYqOGltAiGtdeuQP0J3Azd4ra28osy4ByznXfs5DtXcLqx1QgjoMZW2DSKx0TmXg==uniplatform=NZKPTlanguage=CHS

18. Li Q. The role of grandparenting in early childhood education. Stud Presch Educ 2001; 2001(3):16-17. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=_Kb8wOrUs9uEayagtNz0SB5t_WktCJuZxKvxQxorp_2W6TxQHnvCM84f3Nww8I7xYBAntX6OH-UGUx6yVKQ8W91RMVxHC2wNr5M2HDHm5bTHDp4M5BwFD58jQbxrOjd6&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS

19. Wang K, Liu Y. Education of rural left-behind children in the new era: Challenges and countermeasures: A study based on the survey of 248 Villages in 26 Provinces across China. Educ Res Month 2013; 2013(9):52-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16477/j.cnki.issn1674-2311.2013.09.009

20. Zhou K. Grandparenting for Left-Behind Children: Patterns and Impacts (master’s thesis). Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics. 2016. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=a2GKbg6fW_alZz8Va_3MatQ-H27XCn0LLEVo9MV-9NVCMaZ9Kyl8F_gWV8oIqk9bCyN55XjSG9Y8dgyRqy4P2F7ZxAJtblmQBW7i6fGhl22gU9QRZyMrsv3qRgf4Nbb5e7TOqJbZ6T3VFLO8Z8rXA==uniplatform=NZKPTlanguage=CHS

21. Liu H. Social Work Intervention in Grandparenting for Left-Behind Children in Impoverished Areas (master’s thesis). Inner Mongolia Normal University. 2019. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=a2GKbg6fW_bZZdm-PdSsqvBIKy6lt10im4vF0bKFm05MOa1GGINoxD45JBJPhMkmhP-xkYQXybCT_69SnQm019dK_5PYDIMaQ0Bhm9X3BijPPdPfYcKOXvddBnTnYHrttYsBpn6jUSETr1qqezTQ==uniplatform=NZKPTlanguage=CHS

22. Zhou Z, Sun X, Fan C. The Psychological Development of Left-behind Children in Rural Areas: Issues and Countermeasures. J South Chin Norm Univ (Soc Sci Ed) 2007; 2007(6):119-125+160. Available at: https://kns.cnki.net/kcms2/article/abstract?v=gPw7xOyBVLEs2pWLoNI32onrhVKCmsfvCabMtv0izTSVZwy4IhEJZQGSl925dHAHn67JprSp2Pj78iP0T8qCOhDvMJUK-S-ixLygME4lx459wtqkn6gX2AMvi5Mtysv4&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS

23. Zheng X. Mental Health of Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas: Problems and Countermeasures (master’s thesis). Jilin Agricultural University. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.27163/d.cnki.gjlnu.2019.000201

24. Lu L. Psychological health issues in left-behind children in rural areas. Seeker 2007; 2007(7):151-153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16059/j.cnki.cn43-1008/c.2007.07.057
How to Cite
Liu, H. (2024). The Impact of Grandparenting on Rural Left-Behind Children in China. Science Insights, 44(6), 1415–1419. https://doi.org/10.15354/si.24.re1019