Published Jan 28, 2017

Megan Chagin

Darren J. Brewer  


Microalgae have been appeared to be a wellspring of various bio-based items running from high esteem particles to products. This paper is centered on the significance of outfitting the bioremediation limit of microalgae to treat wastewaters with a specific end goal to build up the microalgae business (particularly the microalgae biofuel industry) and to discover different other options to the exemplary wastewater treatment forms. There are many applications of wastewater and one of the most prominent examples is that it can be used as a bio fuel feed stock. Apart from this wastewater is also important because it is needed for the advancement of microalgae bio fuel industry. There are many ways to treat wastewater and used it in the biofuel industry and urban wastewater treatment is one of them. In urban wastewater treatment the toxins that are present in wastewater are treated and it is then used in biofuel industry. Another way of treatment is industrial or agricultural wastewater treatment. In this process the microalgae that is present in wastewater is utilized. Nowadays some techniques are introduced by which for the vaccination of microalgae and these techniques are simple and easy to be implemented.



Microalgae, Wastewater, Environment, Sustainable Development, Biofuel

1. Wijffels RH, Kruse O, Hellingwerf KJ. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2013; 24:405-413.

2. Milledge J. Commercial application of microalgae other than as biofuels: A brief review. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 2011; 10:31-41.

3. Delrue F, Setier PA, Sahut C, Cournac L, Roubaud A, Peltier G. An economic, sustainability, and energetic model of biodiesel production from microalgae. Bioresour Technol 2012; 111:191-200.

4. Acién FG, Fernández JM, Magán JJ, Molina E. Production cost of a real microalgae production plant and strategies to reduce it. Biotechnol Adv 2012; 30:1344-1353.

5. Park JBK, Craggs RJ, Shilton AN. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production. Bioresour Technol 2011; 102:35-42.

6. Pittman JK, Dean AP, Osundeko O. The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources. Bioresour Technol 2011; 102:17-25.

7. Chaput G, Charmanski K, Farag I. Sustainable Production of Microalgae Oil Feedstock Using Municipal Wastewater and CO2 Fertilization. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2012; 4:3489-3499.

8. Quinn JC, Davis R. The potentials and challenges of algae based biofuels: A review of the techno-economic, life cycle, and resource assessment modeling. Bioresour Technol 2015; 184:444-452.

9. Collet P, Hélias A, Lardon L, Ras M, Goy RA, Steyer JP. Life-cycle assessment of microalgae culture coupled to biogas production. Bioresour Technol 2011; 102:207-214.

10. Gosling SN, Arnell NW. A global assessment of the impact of climate change on water scarcity. Clim Chang 2013; 1-15.

11. Cordell D, Drangert J, White S. The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Glob Environ Chang 2009; 19:292-305.

12. Guo T, Englehardt J, Wu T. Review of cost versus scale: Water and wastewater treatment and reuse processes. Water Sci Technol 2015; 69:223-234.

13. Nurdogan Y, Oswald WJ. Enhanced nutrient removal in high-rate ponds. Water Sci Technol 1995; 31:33-43.

14. Park JBK, Craggs RJ. Wastewater treatment and algal production in high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition. Water Sci Technol 2010; 61:633-639.

15. Min M, Wang L, Li Y, Moher MJ, Hu B, Zhou W, Chen P, Ruan R. Cultivating Chlorella sp. in a pilot-scale photo bioreactor using centrate wastewater for microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrient removal. Appl Biochem Biotech 2011; 165:123-137.

16. Hammouda A, Gaber A, Abdelraouf N. Microalgae and Wastewater Treatment Ecotox Environ Safe. 1995; 31:205-210.

17. Peng FQ, Ying GG, Yang B, Liu S, Lai HJ, Liu YS, Chen ZF, Zhou GJ. Biotransformation of progesterone and norgestrel by two freshwater microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa): Transformation kinetics and products identification. Chemosphere 2014; 95:581-588.

18. Sankaran K, Premalatha M, Vijayasekaran M, Somasundaram VT. DEPHY project: Distillery wastewater treatment through anaerobic digestion and phycoremediation-A green industrial approach. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2014; 37:634-643.

19. Solovchenko A, Pogosyan S, Chivkunova O, Selyakh I, Semenova L, Voronova E, Scherbakov P, Konyukhov I, Chekanov C, Kirpichnikov M, Lobakova E. Phycoremediation of alcohol distillery wastewater with a novel Chlorella sorokiniana strain cultivated in a photobioreactor monitored on-line via chlorophyll fuorescence. Algal Res 2014; 6:234-241.

20. Tarlan E, Dilek FB, Yetis U. Effectiveness of algae in the treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater. Bioresour Technol 2002; 84: 1-5.

21. Kothari R, Prasad R, Kumar V, Singh DP. Production of biodiesel from microalgae Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum grown on dairy industry wastewater. Bioresour Technol 2013; 144:499-503.

22. Tian-Yuan Z, Yin-Hu W, Lin-Lan Z, Xiao-Xiong W, Hong-Ying H. Screening heterotrophic micro algal strains by using the Biolog method for biofuel production from organic wastewater. Algal Res 2014; 6:175-179.

23. Lima SAC, Raposo MFJ, Castro PML, Morais RM. Biodegradation of p-chlorophenol by a microalgae consortium. Wat Res 2004; 38:97-102.

24. Papazi A, Kotzabasis K. "Rational" management of dichlorophenols biodegradation by the microalga scenedesmus obliquus. PLoS ONE 2013; 8.

25. Subashchandrabose SR, Ramakrishnan B, Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R. Mixotrophic cyanobacteria and microalgae as distinctive biological agents for organic pollutant degradation. Environ Int 2013; 51:59-72.

26. Wang S, Wang X, Poon K, Wang Y, Li S, Liu H, Lin S, Cai Z. Removal and reductive dechlorination of triclosan by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Chemosphere 2013; 92:1498-1505.

27. De Godos I, Muñoz R, Guieysse B. Tetracycline removal during wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds. J Hazard Mater 2012; 229-230:446-449.

28. Sethunathan N, Megharaj M, Chen ZL, Williams BD, Lewis G, Naidu R. Algal degradation of a known endocrine disrupting insecticide, a-endosulfan, and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, in liquid medium and soil. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52:3030-3035.

29. Kumar KS, Dahms HU, Won EJ, Lee JS, Shin KH. Microalgae-A promising tool for heavy metal remediation. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 2015; 113:329-352.

30. Muñoz R, Guieysse B. Algal-bacterial processes for the treatment of hazardous contaminants: A review. Water Res 2006; 40:2799-2815.
How to Cite
Chagin, M., & Brewer, . D. J. (2017). Bio-refinery for Wastewater Remediation: How to Adopt Microalgae? (Part I). Science Insights, 2017(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.15354/si.17.re005