Published Feb 28, 2020

Yanli Liu

Jijun Yao  

Ru Cai

Shike Zhou


To improve children’s academic achievements, parents often try to provide them with adequate nutrition or/and send them to attend extracurricular tutoring classes. The effect of extracurricular tutoring on students’ performance has been well explored, whereas no rigorous empirical study was conducted to observe the relationship between breakfast and students’ academic performance. Besides, little empirical evidence has been presented to compare the effect of breakfast and that of extracurricular tutoring on students’ academic achievements. This study fills this gap by adopting the multiple linear regression model and Shapley Value Decomposition to analyze the academic quality monitoring data of 50,516 Year-3 students and 83,505 Year-8 students in Jiangsu, China. The results showed that both breakfast and extracurricular tutoring can improve students’ grades, and breakfast was superior to the tutoring in efficacy. This conclusion is of great significance for planning family education strategies scientifically and improving family education efficiently. It is necessarily convincible for parents and educators to rationally understand the role of extracurricular tutoring and pay enough attention to breakfast in improving students’ performance.


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Breakfast, Extracurricular Tutoring, Student Achievements, Family Education, Shapley Value Decomposition

Supporting Agencies

The study was funded by the Priority Academic Program for Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

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How to Cite
Liu, Y., Yao, J., Cai, R., & Zhou, S. (2020). Eating Breakfast or Attending Extracurricular Tutoring, Which One is More Effective in Improving Student’s Performance? An Empirical Study Based on the Data from A Large-Scale Provincial Survey. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 5(1), 481-499. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.20.ar029
Original Article