Published Jun 30, 2021

Alan C.K. Cheung  


Rural areas are the product of the development of productivity to a certain stage. Generally, rural areas are geographical areas located outside of cities and towns. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the term “rural” as “...not including all population, housing, and territory in urban areas. Anything that is not in a city is regarded as a rural area” (HRSA, 2021). From the perspective of production methods, rural areas refer to “a place where people mainly engaged in agricultural production live together” (The Dictionary Editing Office of the Institute of Languages, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2005). When productivity has not yet reached a high level of development, there are still essential differences between urban and rural areas. Affected by economic transformation and geographical location, rural economic growth has been restricted. According to United Nations statistics, in 2018, the rural population accounted for more than half of the global population, and the rural poor accounted for 79% of the worldwide poverty population; the poverty rate in rural areas was more than three times that of urban areas. Of the 2 billion people in the world who do not have basic health services, 70% live in rural areas; the ratio of energy access in rural areas is about 75%, while that in urban areas is 96% (United Nations General Assembly, 2018).


Download data is not yet available.


Chen, F. (2004). Behind Outstanding Achievements-The Status Quo and Problems of Rural Education in the United States. Journal of World Education, 11(10):30-31. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-JYXI200410014.htm

Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Languages, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Modern Chinese Dictionary (5th Edition). Beijing: The Commercial Press, 2005.

Health Resources & Services Administration, HRSA. (Date Last Reviewed: January 2021). Defining Rural Population. Retrieved June 02, 2021, from https://www.hrsa.gov/rural-health/about-us/definition/index.html

Irby, B.J., Tong, F., Lara-Alecio, R., Tang, S., Guerrero, C., Wang, Z., & Zhen, F. (2021). Investigating the impact of literacy-infused science intervention on economically challenged students’ science achievement: A case study from a rural district in Texas. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 9(1):1123-1141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.21 .or033

Jiao, B. (1999). A Study on the Development of Japanese Rural Economy after the War.Shanghai:Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Press,1999. pp188.

Li, J., & Guo, L. (2006). The main experience of reforming weak schools in developed countries. Primary & Secondary Schooling Abroad, (11):8-11+29. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1007-8495.2006.11.007

Matsuura, K. (2004, October 25-28). Learning for Work, Citizenship, and Sustainability: UNESCO’s Role and Contribution. In NESCO International Experts Meeting Final Report, pp18-21. Bonn, Germany. Retrieved June 02, 2021, from https://unevoc.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pubs/SD_FinalReport_e.pdf

OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 Results: Executive Summary. Retrieved June 06, 2021, from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/46619703.pdf

The World Bank. (2020, September). Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above). Retrieved June 05, 2021, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS?end=2019&start=1970&view=chart

United Nations General Assembly. (2018, October 30). United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas. Retrieved June 02, 2021, from https://undocs.org/en/A/C.3 /73/L.30

United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs. (2015, July 06). Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. Retrieved June 05, 2021, from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/mdg- report-2015.html

Xiao, Z. (2004). A weak link in rural education in the United States. Journal of World Education, 11(4):40. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-JYXI200404016.htm
How to Cite
Cheung, A. C. (2021). How Should Education in Rural Areas be Reformed?. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 9(1), 1113–1117. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.21.co015