The British educational sociologist B. Bernstein (2003) believed that in human social communication, the language signs used by people can be divided into exquisite signs and restrictive signs. Exquisite symbols include the arrangement of complex grammatical sentences and general semantics; while restricted symbols consist of simple, low-selective and restricted grammars and words, relying on the semantics of a specific context. Children born in middle-class families are familiar with and mastered exquisite symbols in their interactions with their parents, which is the basis for them to easily obtain excellent academic studies. Children born in poor families are familiar with restrictive symbols in their interactions with their parents. The language symbols used in the school education environment are mostly exquisite symbols, or standard academic language. If children from poor families cannot master the exquisite symbols, it will affect their understanding of the learning content, prone to learning difficulties, and lead to poor academic achievement.
Irby, B.J., Tong, F., Lara-Alecio, R., Tang, S., Guerrero, C., Wang, Z., & Zhen, F. (2021). Investigating the impact of literacy-infused science intervention on economically challenged students’ science achievement: A case study from a rural district in Texas. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 9(1):1123-1141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.21.or033
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