Published Oct 31, 2021

Fengping Zhao  


Tere are many factors that affect students' academic performance. Early studies emphasized students’ existing foundations, their own abilities (Stigler, Lee & Stevenson, 1986), family factors (Wang, 2015), school or class organizational structure (Angrist, & Lavy, 1999; Häkkinen, Kirjavainen & Uusitalo, 2003), cultural factors (Stigler, Stevenson, 2005; Geary, Bow-Thomas, Fan & Siegler, 1993) and other influences on their academic performance. However, the research on the influence of teacher factors has only received attention since the 1980s. Researchers explored the relationship between teachers’ classroom behavior and students’ academic performance, trying to focus on the teaching process (Lockheed & Komenan, 1989), teacher guidance (Brophy, 1988), teacher feedback (Gettinger, & Stoiber, 1999), Teacher planning and preparation (Peterson, Marx & Clark, 1978) explored the causes that can significantly affect students' academic performance.


Download data is not yet available.



Classroom Teaching

Angrist, J.D., & Lavy, V. (1999). Using Maimonides’ rule to estimate the effect of class size on scholastic achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2):533-575.

Brophy, J. (1988). Research linking teacher behavior to student achievement: Potential implications for instruction of Chapter 1 students. Educational Psychologist, 23(3):235-286.

Butler, R., & Nisan, M. (1986). Effects of no feedback, task-related comments, and grades on intrinsic motivation and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3):210.

Geary, D.C., Bow-Thomas, C.C., Fan, L., & Siegler, R.S. (1993). Even before formal instruction, Chinese children outperform American children in mental addition. Cognitive Development, 8(4):517-529.

Gettinger, M., & Stoiber, K.C. (1999). Excellence in teaching: Review of instructional and environmental variables. The Handbook of School Psychology, 3:383-409.

Häkkinen, I., Kirjavainen, T., & Uusitalo, R. (2003). School resources and student achievement revisited: new evidence from panel data. Economics of Education Review, 22(3):329-335.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1):81-112.

Henderlong, J., & Lepper, M.R. (2002). The effects of praise on children’s intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(5):774.

Kamins,ML..&Dweck,C.S.(1999).Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications forcontingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3):835-847.
Lockheed, M.E., & Komenan, A. (1989). Teaching quality and student achievement in Africa: The case of Nigeria and Swaziland. Teaching and Teacher Education, 5(2):93-113.

Peterson, P.L., Marx, R.W., & Clark, C.M. (1978). Teacher planning, teacher behavior, and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 15(3):417-432.

Skinner, B. F. (2019). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. BF Skinner Foundation.

Stigler J.W., & Stevenson H.W. (2005). How Asian teachers polish each lesson to perfection. Readings on the Development of Children, 236.

Stigler, J.W., Lee, S.Y., & Stevenson, H.W. (1986). Digit memory in Chinese and English: Evidence for a temporally limited store. Cognition, 23(1):1-20.

Wei, B. (2015). Classroom Perspective: Primary and Secondary School Teachers’ Critical Behavior and Its Impact on Teacher-student Relationship and Student Self-esteem (Master’s Thesis, Soochow University). https://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbname=CMFD201601&filename=1015404496.nh

Yao, D., Xu, Y., & Zhang, P. (2020). Teacher feedback and students’ self-education expectations: The impact of praise and criticism on different students’ self-education expectations. Economic Science, 2020(5):111-123.

Zhang, S., Du, X., & Deng, J. (2021). A mixed study on the effectiveness of verbal praise in primary school class. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 10(1):1353-1363. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.21.or060
How to Cite
Zhao, F. (2021). Praise or Criticism? How Should Teachers Give Effective Feedback in the Classroom Teaching?. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 10(1), 1312–1322. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.21.co024

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.