Published Apr 30, 2022

Jiangran Yu

Rui Zhang  


At the moment, shadow education is undergoing a rapid global expansion and has garnered widespread attention from a variety of sectors of society. After reviewing a substantial body of literature on after-school tutoring, this paper will attempt to summarize the findings of existing research on the evolution, current landscape, operating patterns, causes, impacts, and regulation of shadow education, with the goal of providing an overview of the subject for academia and sparking future research.


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Shadow Education, Educational Equality, Private Supplementary Tutoring, After-School Tutoring Institutions, Regulation

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How to Cite
Yu, J., & Zhang, R. (2022). A Review of Shadow Education. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 11(2), 1579–1593. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.22.re058