Published Apr 30, 2022

Haisheng Song

Haiping Xue  


We use the Hierarchical Linear Model to analyze the current state of extracurricular tutoring time for secondary school students and its impact on academic performance using PISA2015 data from four provincial administrative regions in China. The study discovered that the effect of extracurricular tutoring time on academic performance is a non-linear relationship that initially declines and then increases, indicating that subject-specific tutoring has a threshold effect. When tutoring time exceeds a certain threshold, academic performance improves qualitatively. However, when mathematics tutoring time exceeds a certain threshold, the gap in mathematics scores between students from different family backgrounds widens, resulting in educational inequality. The effect of school curriculum time on student achievement is a non-linear relationship that begins with an increase and then declines. When compared to off-campus tutoring time, in-school curriculum time can more effectively improve student academic performance.


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Extracurricular Tutoring Time, Student Academic Performance, Educational Equity, Hierarchical Linear Models

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How to Cite
Song, H., & Xue, H. (2022). The Impact of Extracurricular Tutoring Time Investment on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students: An Empirical Analysis Based on PISA2015 Data of Four Provincial Administrative Regions in China. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 11(2), 1551–1565. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.22.or052
Original Article