The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a project on teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs about organizing trips to out-of-school environments. The present study is a simultaneous mixed pattern research using quantitative and qualitative data. Twenty-four science teachers participated in the study. The effect of training and applications was also evaluated in terms of gender and seniority. Data were collected through Self-Efficacy Belief Scale for Organizing Educational Trips to Out-of-school Environment and open-ended question forms. While there was no difference in self-efficacy beliefs between male and female teachers at the beginning of the project, there was a difference in favor of females at the end of the project. Also, while there was a difference in favor of senior teachers at the beginning of the project, this difference disappeared at the end of the project. As can be seen in the present study, practical activities related to out-of-school learning are very important and such training should be delivered to both in pre-service and in-service teachers.
Field Trips, Out-of-School Learning, Science Center, Science Teacher, Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs
The project in this article was supported by TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey). The project name is “Science Teachers are at the Science Center” and project number is 118B118.
Aydın, İ. S., İnnalı, H.Ö., Batar, M., & Çakır, H. (2013). The study of improving scale on the preservice teachers’ written expression self efficacy. Turkish Studies, 8(8):139-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.4978
Baker, B. (2002). Using science centres as a resource. Australian Primary & Junior Science Journal, 18(1):20-23.
Bakioglu, B., Karamustafaoglu, O., Karamustafaoglu, S., & Yapici, S. (2018). The effects of out-of-school learning settings science activities on 5th graders’ academic achievement. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(3):451-464. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.451
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Bandura. A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Behrendt, M., & Franklin, T. (2014). A review of research on school field trips and their value in education. International Journal of Environment and Science Education, 9:235-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/ijese.2014.213a
Bozdoğan, A. E., & Kavcı, A. (2016). The effects of out of class teaching activities to secondary school students’ academic achievement in science course. Gazi Education Science Journal, 2(1):13-30.
Bozdoğan, A. E. (2012). The practice of prospective science teachers regarding the planning of education-based trips: Evaluation of six different field trips. Educational Science: Theory and Practice, 12(2):1050-1072.
Bozdoğan, A. E. (2016). Development of self-efficacy belief scale for planning and organizing educational trips to out of school settings. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 9(1):111-129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5578/keg.9475
Bozdoğan, A. E., & Yalçın, N. (2006). The effects of science centers on the change of “science interest” levels of primary education students and on their academic success: energy park. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 7(2):95-114.
Carrier, S. J. (2009). The effects of outdoor science lessons with elementary school students on preservice teachers’ self-efficacy. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 21(2):35-48.
Chin, C. (2004). Museum experience: A resource for science teacher education. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2:63-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJMA.0000026536.75034.34
Coll, S. D., & Coll, R. K. (2018) Using blended learning and out-of-school visits: Pedagogies for effective science teaching in the twenty-first century. Research in Science & Technological Education, 36(2):185-204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2017.1393658
Cox-Petersen, A.M., & Pfaffinger, J.A. (1998). Teacher preparation and teacher-student interactions at a discovery center of natural history. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 10:20-35.
Creswell, J., & Plano-Clark, V. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dewitt, J., & Osborne, J. (2007). Supporting teachers on science-focused school trips: Towards an integrated framework of theory and practice. International Journal of Science Education, 29(6):685-710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690600802254
Dillon, J., Rickinson, M., Teamey, K., Morris, M., Young Choi, M.-Y., Sanders, D., et al. (2006). The value of outdoor learning: Evidence from research in the UK and elsewhere. School Science Review, 87:107-111.
Dinther, MV., Dochy, F., & Segers, M. (2011). Factors affecting students’self efficiacy in higher education. Educational Research Review, 6:95-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.10.003
Erol, M., & Avcı-Temizer, D. (2016). A catalyst that put into action “Perception of Self-efficacy”: A study on university students. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 31(4):711-723. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2015014223
Ertaş, H., Şen, A. İ., & Parmaksızoğlu, A. (2011). The effects of out-of school scientific activities on 9th grade students’ relating the unit of energy to daily life. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 5(2):178-198.
Falk, J. H., & Dierking, I. D. (2000). Learning from Museums: Visitor Experience and the Making of Meaning. New York: AltaMira Press.
Falk, J., & Dierking, L. (1997). School field trips: Assessing their long-term impact. Curator, 40(3):211-218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2151-6952.1997.tb01304.x
Griffin, J., & Symington D. (1997). Moving from task-oriented to learning oriented strategies on school excursions to museums. Science Education, 81:763-779.
Griffin, J. (2004). Research on students and museums: Looking more closely at the students in school groups. Science Education, 88(1):59-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20018
Hein, G.E. (1998). Learning in the museum. New York: Routledge.
Jarvis, T., & Pell, A. (2005). Factors influencing elementary school children’s attitudes toward science before, during, and after a visit to the UK National Space Centre. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(1):53-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20045
Kisiel, J. (2003). Teachers, museums and worksheets: A closer look at the learning experience. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14:3-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022991222494
Lakin, L. (2006). Science beyond the classroom. Journal of Biological Education, 40(2):88-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2006.9656021
Laçin Şimşek, C. (2019). Bilim Merkezleri ve Sınıf Gezileri. [Scince Centers and School Trips] (Editörler: F. Köseoğlu, U. Kanlı, Okul Duvarlarının Ötesine Öğrenme Yolculuğu: Bilim-Teknoloji Merkezleri ve Bilim Müzeleri [Learning Journey Beyond School Walls: Science-Technology Centers and Science Museums), pp. 265-285. Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.
Laçin Şimşek, C. (2020). Okul Dışı Öğrenme [Out of School Learning]. (Ed. C. Laçin Şimşek). Fen Öğretiminde Okul Dışı Öğrenme Ortamları [Out of School Learning Environment for Science Education], pp.1-17. Ankara: Pegem A.
Michie, M. (1998). Factors inﬂuencing secondary science teachers to organize and conduct field trips. Australian Science Teacher’s Journal, 44(4):43-50.
Morentin, M., & Guisasola, J. (2015). Primary and secondary teachers’ ıdeas on school visits to science centres in the basque country. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 13:191-121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-013-9481-1
Moseley, C., Reinke, K., & ve Bookout, V. (2002). The effect of teaching outdoor environmental education on preservice teachers’ attitudes toward self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. The Journal of Environmental Education, 34(1):9-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960209603476
Olson, J., A. Cox-Petersen., & McComas, W. (2001). The Inclusion of Informal Environments in Science Teacher Preparation. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 12(3):155-173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016715127697
Orion, N. (1993). A model for the development and implementation of field trips as an integral part of the science curriculum. School Science and Mathematics, 93(6):325-331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.1993.tb12254.x
Rebar, B. M., & Enochs, L. G. (2010). Integrating environmental education field trip pedagogy into science teacher preparation. In A. Bozdin, S. Weaver, & B. Klein (Eds.), The inclusion of environmental education in science teacher’s education (pp. 111–126). New York: Springer.
Rickinson, M., Dillon, J., Teamey, K., Morris, M., Choi, M. Y., Sanders, D., & Benefield, P. (2004) A review of research on outdoor learning. Preston Montford, Shropshire: Field Studies Council. Accessed 13 October 2020.
Rix, C., & Mcsorley J. (1999). An investigation into the role that school-based interactive science centres may play in the education of primary-aged children. International Journal of Science Education, 21(6):577-593. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/095006999290453
Saidi, T., & Sigauke, E. (2017). The use of museum-based science centres to expose primary school students in developing countries to abstract and complex concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26(5):470-480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-017-9692-2
Saul, J. (1993). Ready, set, let’s go! Using field trips in your curriculum. Day Care and Early Education, 27(1):27-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02430445
Scribner-MacLean, M., & Kennedy, L. (2007). More than just a day away from school: Planning a great science field trip. Science Scope, 30(5):57-60.
Senemoğlu, N. (2013). Gelişim, öğrenme ve öğretim kavramdan uygulamaya [Development, learning and teaching from concept to practice]. Ankara: Yargı Yayıncılık.
Sontay, G., & Karamustafaoğlu, O. (2017). Investigation of science teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs related to trip arrangement. Hacettep University Journal of Education, 32(4): 863-879. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2017027586
Storksdieck, M. (2001). Differences in teachers’ and students’ museum field-trip experiences. Visitor Studies Today, 4(1):8-12.
Şen, A. İ. (2019). Okul Dışı Öğrenme Ortamları [Out of School Learning Environments]. Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.
Şentürk, E. (2015). Field trips to science centers: Teachers’ perspectives, roles and reflections. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Tal, R. T. (2004). Community-based environmental education - A case study of teacher–parent collaboration. Environmental Education Research, 10:523-543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1350462042000291047
Tal, R.T. (2001). Incorporating field trips as science learning environment enrichment – An interpretive study. Learning Environment Research, 4:25-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011454625413
Tal, T., & Steiner, L. (2006). Patterns of teacher–museum staff relationships: School visits to the educational center of a science museum. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 6:25-46.
Tal, T., Bamberger, Y., & Morag, O. (2005). Guided school visits to natural history museums in Israel: Teachers’ roles. Science Education, 89:920-935. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20070
Tal, T., & Morag, O. (2009). Reflective practice as a means for preparing to teach outdoors in an ecological garden. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20:245-262. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-009-9131-1
Tuckey, C.J. (1992). School children’s reactions to an interactive science centre. Curator, 35:28-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2151-6952.1992.tb00732.x
Uludag, G. (2021). Views of preschool teachers on using out-of-school learning environments in preschool education. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 8(2):1225-1249.
Yurtdakal, K., & Karakaş, H. (2021). the self-efficacy of classroom teachers to organize educational trips to out-of-school learning environments. HAYEF: Journal of Education, 18(2):295-322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5152/hayef.2021.20032
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.