Using the 2015 data of the China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), the relationship between family socioeconomic background, parent involvement, and shadow education participation was explored through structural equations. The results showed that: parent involvement strengthened shadow education participation; parent involvement played a part in the mediating role in the influence of family socioeconomic background on shadow education participation. Parent involvement activates the advantage of family socioeconomic background. Families with high socioeconomic backgrounds are more active in participating in shadow education, and families of different strata are divided into opportunities for participation in shadow education.
Shadow Education, Parent Involvement, Family Socioeconomic Background, High-Order Mediation Effect, Structural Equation Model
Balli, S. J. (1996). Family diversity and the nature of parental involvement. In The Educational Forum. Taylor & Francis Group, 60(2):149-155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00131729609335117
Bracey, G.W. (1996). SES and Involvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(2):169-170. https://search.proquest.com/openview/2b2c10f80d3fc930e5e13ab0f2ec4c51/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=41842
Bray, M., & Kwok, P. (2013). Demand for private supplementary tutoring: conceptual consiDerations and socioeconomic patterns in Hong Kong. Economics of Education Review, 22(6):611-620. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00032-3
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Chen, B., & Bai, X. (2015). Family socioeconomic status, peer group pressure of parents, and tuition for urban primary school students: Based on a survey of primary schools in Haidian District, Beijing. Tsinghua Journal of Education, 36(5): 102-109. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.14138/j.1001-4519.2015.05.010208
Chu, H. (2009). The background characteristics and personal factors of the extracurricular tutoring families of primary and middle school students in my country. Education Research Monthly, 2009(12):22-27. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.16477/j.cnki.issn1674-2311.2009.12.016
Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(1988):S95-S120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/228943
Coleman, J.S. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity [summary report (Vol. 2). US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education.
Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58:175-199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085551
Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity, and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Re-view, 10(5):323-337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2005.11.001
Epstein, J. (1986). Parents’ Reactions to Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 86(3):277-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/461449
Epstein, J.L. (1987). Parent Involvement: What Research Says to Administrators. Education & Urban Society, 19(2):119-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124587019002002
Gao, X. (2017). The separated childhood: the after-school world of urban children and rural migrant children. Beijing Social Sciences, 2017(9):24-33. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13262/j.bjsshkxy.bjshkx.170903
He, R. (2008). Home school and community collaboration: from concept research to practice. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 7-8. [Chinese]
Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4):161-164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00298.x
Hou, J., Wen, Z., & Cheng, Z. (2004). Social Science Research Method Series: Structural Equation Model and Its Application. Education Science Press.
Huang, X., & An, G. (2008). The relationship between parent participation types and children’s learning outcomes. Studies in Early Childhood Education, 2008(11):40-49. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.13861/j.cnki.sece.2018.11.004
Lareau, A. (1987). Social Class Differences in Family-school Relationships: The Importance of Cultural Capital. Sociology of Education, 60(2):73-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2112583
Lareau, A. (2009). Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life; Translated by Zhang Xu, Beijing: Peking University Press.
Li, J., & Xue, H. (2016). An Empirical Study on the Influence of Family Capital on Junior High School Students’ Participation in Extracurricular Tuition Activities. Journal of Schooling Studies, 13(6):43-52. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1005-2232.2016.06.006
Li, J., & Xue, H. (2019). Parental participation, extracurricular tutoring and academic per-formance of middle school students. Re-search in Educational Development, 39(2):15-22. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.14121/j.cnki.1008-3855.2019.02.005
Lin, X. (2018). “Purchase Hope”: Children’s Educational Consumption in Urban Families. Sociological Studies, 2018(4):163-190+245. [Chinese] https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-SHXJ201804007.htm
Masarik, A.S., & Conger, R.D. (2017). Stress and child development: A review of the Family Stress Model. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13:85-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.05.008
McCubbin, H. I., Joy, C. B., Cauble, A. E., Comeau, J. K., Patterson, J. M., & Needle, R. H. (1980). Family Stress and Coping: A Decade Review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 42(4):855-871. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/351829
Morgan, S. L., & Sorensen, A. B. (1999). Parental networks, social closure, and mathematics learning: A test of Coleman’s social capital explanation of school effects. American Sociological Review, 64(5):661-681. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2657368
Southgate, D.E. (2009). Determinants of shadow education: A cross-national anal-ysis. Dissertation; The Ohio State University. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1259703574
Tansel, A., & Bircan Bodur, F. (2008). Private Supplementary Tutoring in Turkey: Recent Evidence on Its Various, Aspects, ep: 1122804. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1122804
Wu, C., Zhang, J., & Wang, M. (2017). What hinders parents’ participation in their children’s education? Class differences, school selective inhibition and parent participation. Educational Research, 38(1):85-94. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/96925x/201701/671297651.html
Xue, H. (2016). Extracurricular tutoring, academic performance and social reproduction. Education & Economy, 2016(2):32-43. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1003-4870.2016.02.005
Xue, H. (2017). Family capital and education acquisition: the perspective of shadow education. Educational Science Research, 2017(2):31-41+48. [Chinese] http://www.cqvip.com/qk/83877x/201702/671372794.html
Zeng, M., Ding, X., & Shen, H. (2010). Analysis of the urban-rural differences in extra-curricular tutoring for junior high school students: Based on the survey of junior high school students’ extracurricular tutoring in Gansu, Hunan and Jiangsu provinces. Education & Economy, 2010(2): 7-11. [Chinese] DOI: https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1003-4870.2010.02.002
Zhang, W., & Bray, M. (2018). Equalising schooling, unequalising private supplementary tutoring: access and tracking through shadow education in China. Ox-ford Review of Education, 44(2):221-238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2017.1389710
Zhao, Y., & Hong, Yi. (2012). Social capital and educational acquisition: A perspective of network resources and social clo-sure. Sociological Studies, 27(5): 47-69+243-244. [Chinese] https://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CJFD&dbname=CJFD2012&file-name=SHXJ201205003&v=rZKyj4fTYBxQrNqtXBS0aP0mfwOwLX74DgB3K6aNHqVAC-cswpp0T%25mmd2BlJJwUup%25mmd2Fuzq
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.